DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY STANDARDS  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154 and Executive Reorganization Order Nos.  
1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 22. TRACTORS  
R 408.12201 Scope.  
Rule 2201. This part provides for the safe care and use of tractors as defined in this  
part and used in nonagricultural operations.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12202 Adoption of standards by reference.  
Rule 2202. (1) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and  
are available from SAE World Headquarters, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale,  
Pennsylvania, 15096-001, USA, telephone number: 1-877.606.7323 or via the internet at  
subrule.  
(a) Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) standard SAE J4C “Motor Vehicle Seat  
Belt Assemblies,” 1965 edition. Cost $66.00.,  
(b) SAE J167A “Overhead Protection for Agricultural Tractors Standard.” Cost: $  
66.00.  
(2) The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard, NFPA 505 “Type  
Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks,”  
1975 edition, is adopted by reference in these rules and is available from NFPA, 1  
Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts, 02169-7471, USA, telephone number: 1-800-  
adoption of these rules of $27.00.  
(3) The following Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  
regulations are adopted by reference in these rules. Copies of these regulations are  
available from the United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health  
adoption of these rules.  
(a) Occupational Safety and Health Standard for Agriculture: 1928.52 “Protective  
frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors -- test procedures and performance  
requirements.”  
Page 1  
(b) Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Agriculture: 1928.53 “Protective  
enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors -- test procedures and performance  
requirements.”  
(c) Safety and Health Regulations for Construction: 1926.1001 “Minimum  
performance criteria for rollover protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders,  
dozers, graders, and crawler tractors.”  
(4) The standards adopted in subrules (1), (2), and (3) of this rule are also available  
for inspection at the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA  
Standards Section, 7150 Harris Drive, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(5) Copies of the standards adopted in subrules (1), (2), and (3) of this rule may be  
obtained from the publisher or may also be obtained from the Department of Licensing  
and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Standards Section, 7150 Harris Drive, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus $20.00 for  
shipping and handling.  
(6) The following Michigan occupational safety and health standards are referenced  
in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be obtained at no charge from the  
Michigan Department of licensing and regulatory affairs, MIOSHA standards section,  
7150 Harris Drive, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, MI, 48909-8143 or via the internet at  
the time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” R  
408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 37 “Accident Prevention Signs and Tags,”  
R 408.13701 to R 408.13736.  
History: 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12203 Definitions; A to F.  
Rule 2203. (1) "Attachment" means a removable or permanently mounted device  
on a tractor, such as, but not limited to, sweepers, mowers, blades, forks, front-end  
loaders, and post-hole diggers.  
(2) "Drift" means to move without control.  
(3) "Fork-lift tractor" means a high-lift, self-loading tractor equipped with load  
carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads.  
(4) "Free play" means an uncontrolled movement.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12205 Definitions; L.  
Rule 2205. (1) "Load-axle" means the tractor axle nearest the load.  
(2) "Load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork  
carriage frame.  
(3) "Load-engaging means" means a load-handling device attached to a tractor for  
the purpose of handling a load.  
Page 2  
(4) "Low-profile tractor" means a wheeled tractor possessing all of the following  
characteristics:  
(a) The front wheel spacing is generally equal to the rear wheel spacing, as  
measured from the centerline of each right wheel to the centerline of the  
corresponding left wheel.  
(b) The clearance from the bottom of the tractor chassis to the ground is not more  
than 18 inches.  
(c) The highest point of the hood is not more than 60 inches.  
(d) The tractor is designed so that the operator, when seated, straddles the  
transmission.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12206 Definitions; M to P.  
Rule 2206. (1) "Mast" means a support member providing the guideways  
permitting vertical movement of the carriage. It is usually constructed in the form of  
channels or similar sections and provides the supporting pathway for the carriage  
rollers.  
(2) "Nonagricultural operations" means work activity other than that designated in  
major groups 01 and 02, that is, agricultural production of crops and livestock of the  
standard industrial classification manual, United States bureau of the budget, 1972  
edition, and includes any practices other than those performed by a farmer, or on a  
farm, as an incident to, or in conjunction with, such farming operations. Examples of  
nonagricultural operations are landscaping, groundskeeping, roadway maintenance,  
construction services, loading, and digging.  
(3) "Operator" means an employee who has been trained and authorized by the  
employer or his designated representative to operate a tractor.  
(4) "Overhead guard" means a framework fitted to a tractor over the head of a riding  
operator to protect the operator from falling objects.  
(5) "Parking brake" means a device to prevent the movement of a parked tractor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12207 Definitions; R to T.  
Rule 2207. (1) "ROPS" means a rollover protective structure. ROPS may be a  
protective frame or a protective enclosure mounted to a tractor.  
(2) "Self-loading" means the capability of a tractor to pick up, carry, set down, and,  
in case of high-lift types, to stack or tier its load without the aid of external means.  
(3) "Service brake" means a device designed to bring a moving tractor to a halt.  
(4) "Tractor" means 1 of the following:  
(a) "Agricultural-type tractor" means a 2- or 4-wheel-drive vehicle of more than 20  
engine horsepower and designed to furnish the power to pull, carry, propel, or drive  
attachments primarily intended for use in agricultural operations.  
(b) "Industrial tractor" means a 2- or 4-wheel-drive vehicle of more than 20  
engine horsepower designated as an industrial tractor by the manufacturer, but having  
Page 3  
the appearance of an agricultural tractor, and designed to furnish the power to pull,  
carry, propel, or drive attachments primarily intended for industrial use.  
(5) "Tiering" means a process of placing a load on or above another load.  
(6) "Tractor weight" means the combined weight of the protective frame or  
enclosure, all fuels, and other components required for the normal use of the tractor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12211 Labels.  
Rule 2211. Painted or affixed information necessary for the safe operation of a  
tractor and an attachment, when in use, shall be in a legible condition.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12212 Modifications.  
Rule 2212. (1) An additional counterweight, excluding wheelweights, or other  
counterweights supplied by the manufacturer and used as recommended, shall not be  
installed on a tractor by the employer without written assurance from the  
manufacturer of the tractor that the stability of the tractor is maintained.  
(2) Other modifications affecting the tractor's capacity or safety shall not be made  
without written approval of the manufacturer, the special equipment manufacturer, or  
an engineer knowledgeable on the subject. Capacity, operation, and maintenance  
instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12213 Parking brakes.  
Rule 2213. A tractor shall be equipped with a parking brake or parking lock  
capable of holding the tractor on the maximum grade that the tractor can negotiate with  
rated load, or on a 15% grade, whichever is lesser. The parking brake or parking lock  
shall be manually or automatically applied and shall remain applied until released by the  
operator.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12214 Backhoe-equipped tractors.  
Rule 2214. If a tractor is equipped with a backhoe, outriggers shall be provided and  
used, when necessary, to maintain stability.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12215 Load-handling controls; identification; single lever.  
Page 4  
Rule 2215. (1) A load-handling control on a tractor shall be identified to indicate its  
function and the direction of the motion of the load or equipment.  
(2) A single lever may be used to perform more than 1 function. Push-button  
or pre-selected controls shall be properly identified.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12216 Overhead guards.  
Rule 2216. (1) When a load is lifted higher than the head of the operator, and the  
load creates a hazard to the operator, or when the operator is endangered by a hazard of  
falling objects other than the load, an overhead guard shall be provided. The overhead  
guard shall be as prescribed in SAE J167A, “Overhead Protection for Agricultural  
Tractors Standard,” as referenced in R 408.12202.  
(2) The overhead guard shall be constructed in a manner that minimizes interference  
with the driver’s horizontal visibility. The overhead guard may be constructed of a solid  
material. If a grid or mesh is used, a 1.5-inch diameter circle shall be the maximum circle  
that can be inserted between the elements of the grid or mesh. The guard shall be large  
enough to extend over the operator under all normal circumstances of tractor operation,  
including forward and rearward tilt of the mast.  
(3) On a tractor, a vertical clearance of not less than 39 inches should be maintained  
from the point of maximum depression of the operator’s seat to the underside of the  
section of the overhead guard under which the operator’s head moves during normal  
operation.  
(4) Where head room conditions limit the overall lowered height of the tractor, the  
normal clearance height may be reduced if the operator wears safety head protection as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
as referenced in R 408.12202.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12217 Operation of tractor on slope, ROPS requirements; remounting;  
labeling.  
Rule 2217. (1) After January 1, 1980, an employer shall not permit a tractor to be  
operated on a slope that could cause the tractor to overturn, unless the tractor is equipped  
with a ROPS. A low-profile that is used where the vertical clearance is insufficient to  
allow a ROPS-equipped, low profile tractor to operate, and where it is used inside a  
building, is excepted from this requirement.  
(2) A ROPS for a wheel-type tractor shall meet the test and performance  
requirements of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  
regulations 29 C.F.R. 1928.52 “Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors --  
test procedures and performance requirements,” and 1928.53 “Protective enclosures for  
wheel-type agricultural tractors -- test procedures and performance requirements,” that  
are adopted by reference in R 408.12202.  
(3) If a ROPS is removed for any reason, it shall be remounted before the tractor is  
operated so as to meet the requirements of this rule.  
Page 5  
(4) Each ROPS shall have permanently affixed to it a label that states all of the  
following:  
(a) Manufacturer’s or fabricator’s name and address.  
(b) ROPS model number, if any.  
(c) Tractor make, model, or series number that the ROPS is designed to fit.  
(d) That the ROPS model was tested in accordance with the requirements of OSHA  
regulations 29 C.F.R. 1928.52, “Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors --  
test procedures and performance requirements,” 29 C.F.R. 1928.53 “Protective  
enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors -- test procedures and performance  
requirements,” or 29 C.F.R. 1926.1001 “Minimum performance criteria for rollover  
protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders, dozers, graders, and crawler  
tractors,” that are adopted by reference in R 408.42202.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12218 Construction of seat belts.  
Rule 2218. An employer shall equip each tractor having a ROPS with a seat belt  
which meets the requirements of the standard, SAE J4C “Motor Vehicle Seat Belt  
Assemblies,” 1965 edition, as adopted by reference in R 408.42202, except as noted in R  
408.12252 (2) and (3).  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12219 Protection from spillage, pinch points, and power take-offs.  
Rule 2219. (1) Covers, caps, and breathers for batteries, fuel tanks, oil reservoirs,  
and coolant systems shall be kept in place.  
(2) Any pinch point or shear point created by the tractor or the attachments, or  
both, that creates a hazard, to which an operator in the normal operating position is  
exposed, shall be guarded.  
(3) A tractor having a power take-off shaft shall be equipped with a master shield  
on the power take-off shaft, except as permitted in subrule  
(4). The shield shall have a strength capable of preventing permanent deformation  
when a 250-pound operator mounts or dismounts the tractor using the shield as a step.  
(4) Power take-off-driven equipment shall be guarded to prevent employee contact  
with the positively driven, rotating member of the power-driven system. Where power  
take-off-driven equipment is of a design requiring the removal of the master shield, the  
attaching equipment shall include protection from that portion of the tractor power  
take-off shaft that protrudes from the tractor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12220 Restrictions of use.  
Page 6  
Rule 2220. (1) Except as provided in subrule (2) of this rule, a tractor shall not be  
used in an environment that is likely to contain an ignitable mixture of gases, vapors,  
dusts, or fibers.  
(2) A tractor used in a hazardous environment, as noted in subrule (1) of this rule,  
shall be equipped and labeled as prescribed in the National Fire Protection Association  
Standard NFPA 505, “Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation of  
Powered Industrial Trucks,” 1975 edition, as adopted by reference in R 408.42202.  
(3) A tractor with an internal combustion engine shall not be operated in a building  
or enclosed area unless ventilation is provided which reduces the concentration of toxic  
gases below the maximum allowable limits as set by the Michigan Occupational Safety  
and Health Administration (MIOSHA) Standards.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12231 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12232 Training.  
Rule 2232. An employer or his designated representative shall provide training to  
an employee prior to the employee's assignment as an operator of a tractor. Instruction  
shall include the following:  
(a) Capabilities of the equipment and attachments.  
(b) Purpose, use, and limitations of controls.  
(c) How to make daily checks.  
(d) Practice operating assigned tractors through the functions necessary to perform  
the required jobs.  
(e) Use of seat belts.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12233 Testing.  
Rule 2233. Before an employer or his designated representative authorizes an  
employee to operate a tractor, the employee shall demonstrate his ability to  
satisfactorily operate a tractor to the employer.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12234 Permits.  
Rule 2234. An employer shall establish a procedure that assures that an employee  
is trained and qualified to operate a tractor prior to authorizing the employee to  
operate a tractor. A permit system may be used to comply with this rule.  
Page 7  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12235 Mechanical condition and maintenance.  
Rule 2235. (1) Repair or service work shall not be performed on tractors or  
attachments while the engine is running, except to make those adjustments that  
cannot otherwise be made.  
(2) A ROPS structure shall not be welded, machined, or otherwise modified  
unless an engineer qualified in this field, a recognized testing laboratory, or the original  
manufacturer certifies that the welding, machining, or modification will not alter the  
original strength rating.  
(3) An employer shall not permit a tractor to be used if any of the following  
conditions exist:  
(a) The service or parking brakes do not perform their intended function.  
(b) The fuel system leaks.  
(c) A lift cylinder of a load-engaging means allows a downward drift of the load-  
engaging means, loaded or unloaded, in excess of 5 inches in 5 minutes.  
(d) A hydraulic system leaks and creates a hazard for an employee or equipment  
in the area.  
(e) The tractor runs in excess of normal operating temperature thereby creating a  
hazardous condition.  
(4) Repairs to a tractor shall not be made in a location made hazardous by the  
following conditions:  
(a) Flammable gases or vapors.  
(b) Combustible dusts.  
(c) Ignitable fibers.  
(5) A replacement part that affects the safety of the operation of the tractor shall  
provide not less than the equivalent safety of the original part.  
(6) All repairs and modifications shall be made by authorized and qualified  
personnel.  
(7) Before servicing or repairing a hydraulic system of a tractor the pressure of the  
system shall be relieved.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12236 Blocks and safety stands.  
Rule 2236. An employer shall provide and require the use of blocks or safety  
stands as a secondary support for tractors or attachments elevated from the floor by a  
floor jack, hoist, or chain fall.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12237 Fuel.  
Page 8  
Rule 2237. (1) An employer shall provide and require the use of approved safety  
fuel cans where tractors are refueled with gasoline at other than a gas pump area or tank  
wagon.  
(2) A tractor shall not be refueled while the engine is running or while a source of  
ignition is within 25 feet of the tractor. Spilled fuel shall be carefully washed away or  
completely evaporated, and the fuel tank cap replaced before restarting the engine.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12239 Lift platforms.  
Rule 2239. (1) An employee shall not be lifted by a fork-lift tractor, except when a  
platform is attached to the forks by enclosed sleeves and a safety chain, or other  
mechanical device, in such a manner that the platform cannot tip or slip.  
(2) A platform shall be equipped with a top railing approximately 42 inches high,  
an intermediate rail, and a toeboard. The railing shall consist of 1 of the following  
materials:  
(a) Wood posts of at least 2 x 4 inches nominal stock, the top rail shall be made  
of 2 right angle pieces of not less than 1 x 4 inch nominal stock and an intermediate rail  
of 1 x 4 inch nominal stock.  
(b) Steel or aluminum pipe posts and rails with an inside diameter of not less than  
1 inch and an intermediate rail of 3/4-inch inside-diameter pipe.  
(c) Structural steel or aluminum posts, rails, and intermediate rails of angle iron of  
not less than 1 x 1 x 3/16 inch size, or other shapes of equal strength.  
(3) The toeboard shall be made of not less than 1 inch x 4 inch nominal wood stock  
or a material of equal strength.  
(4) The intermediate rail may be omitted from 1 side if necessary to perform the  
work.  
(5) Any pinch point or shear point on the lifting mechanism to which an employee  
on the lift platform is exposed shall be guarded.  
(6) An employee shall not be transported in a front-end loader bucket.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12240 Load backrest extensions.  
Rule 2240. A load backrest extension shall be used on a fork-lift tractor  
whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of a load, or part of it, falling rearward.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12241 Spinner knobs.  
Rule 2241. A spinner knob shall not be attached to a steering wheel on a tractor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 9  
R 408.12242 Signs, lights, and warning devices.  
Rule 2242. (1) A tractor that is operated on a public street or road shall display a  
slow moving vehicle sign, as prescribed in R 408.13721 of General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 37 “Accident Prevention Signs and Tags,” as referenced in R 408.12202.  
The tractor shall be equipped with an amber flashing or rotating light visible from 360  
degrees.  
(2) A tractor that is operated between dawn and dusk on a public street or road or in  
an area where general lighting is less than 2 foot-candles shall be equipped with  
headlights and a taillight.  
(3) Where an employee’s safety may be affected, a tractor used in areas where  
general lighting is less than 2 foot-candles shall be equipped with auxiliary lights that  
illuminate the work in progress.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12243 Tractor inspection; reporting defects.  
Rule 2243. (1) A tractor shall be visually inspected prior to each shift to assure that  
there are no visible defects which would adversely affect the safe operation of the  
tractor and to assure that the prescribed safety devices are in place and functional.  
(2) A tractor having any safety defects shall be reported to the supervisor for  
appropriate action.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12251 Operating rules generally.  
Rule 2251. (1) At the start of his shift, the operator of a tractor shall perform  
those checks of his equipment required by R 408.12243.  
(2) An operator shall not drive a tractor up to anyone who is standing in front of  
any fixed object.  
(3) An operator shall not allow anyone to stand or pass under the elevated  
portion of any tractor or its attachment.  
(4) An operator shall not put his arms or legs outside of the moving wheels of a  
tractor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12252 Seat belt use.  
Rule 2252. (1) An employee operating a tractor equipped with ROPS shall be  
required to wear a seat belt when the tractor is moving on a slope or under other  
conditions that affect its stability. The seat belt shall be adjusted so that it secures the  
operator to the seat.  
(2) Where a suspended seat is used, the seat belt shall be fastened to the moveable  
portion of the seat to accommodate the ride-motion of the operator.  
Page 10  
(3) Any seat belt hardware or webbing with defects that adversely affect the purpose  
of the seat belt shall be repaired or replaced.  
(4) No one except the operator shall ride on a tractor unless a seat is provided.  
Where ROPS is required, the seat shall be within the ROPS and a seat belt shall be worn  
to secure the rider to the seat.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12253 Parking.  
Rule 2253. (1) When the tractor is temporarily parked within the vision of or within  
25 feet of the operator, the operator shall neutralize the controls and set the parking  
brake or park lock.  
(2) When a tractor is parked overnight or is left unattended, the power shall be shut  
off and the controls and attachments set so as to preclude any motion.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12254 Path of travel; clear access.  
Rule 2254. (1) Before moving or stacking materials, an operator shall observe his  
path of travel in order to avoid obstacles.  
(2) When depositing a load, an operator shall maintain the clear access to fire aisles,  
to stairways, and to fire equipment.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12255 Reporting accidents.  
Rule 2255. A tractor operator shall promptly report to his supervisor or other  
designated person all accidents involving injury to an employee or damage to buildings  
and equipment.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12259 Repairs; authorization; qualifications.  
Rule 2259. An operator shall not make any repairs or adjustments unless  
specifically authorized and qualified to do so.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12260 Operation.  
Rule 2260. (1) An operator shall do the following:  
(a) Operate a tractor according to the rules of this part and in accordance with  
local traffic rules when on a public road.  
Page 11  
(b) Look in the direction of and keep a clear view of the direction of travel.  
(c) Travel with the load-engaging means elevated only sufficiently to clear  
obstacles on floor or roadway.  
(d) Start, stop, and turn in a manner that will prevent a load from shifting or  
overturning the tractor.  
(e) Drive at a slow speed over wet or slippery surfaces.  
(2) Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.  
(3) Before starting a tractor equipped with a power take-off shaft that is attached to  
equipment, the power take-off shall be disengaged when an unexpected start-up of the  
attachment could be hazardous.  
(4) The operator shall disengage power to any power take-off attachment when it is  
not in use.  
(5) The operator of a tractor shall transport a load in a bucket or front-end loader  
with the attachment in the lowest possible position.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12261 Operating on slopes and grades.  
Rule 2261. A tractor shall not be operated on a slope or grade unless consideration  
is given to the type of tractor and attachment, type and condition of the surface, speed  
and direction of movement, and other factors that may cause the tractor to overturn.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 12