DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY STANDARDS  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-18 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4,  
MCL 408.1016, 408.1021, 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 45. DIE CASTING  
R 408.14501 Scope.  
Rule 4501. This part provides for safe maintenance and operation of machinery  
and equipment by employers and their safe use by employees in, around, and about die  
casting operations, which are not covered by other standards. Permanent-mold casting is  
not included.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14502 MIOSHA referenced standards.  
Rule 4502. The following Michigan occupational safety and health (MIOSHA)  
standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be  
obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 7150 Harris Drive, P.O. Box 30643,  
Lansing,  
Michigan,  
48909-8143  
or  
via  
the  
internet  
at  
website:  
time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety Standard Part 23 “Hydraulic Power Presses,”  
R 408.12301 to R 408.12373.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
History: 2015 AACS.  
R 408.14503 Definitions; A to G.  
Rule 4503. (1) "Automatic die casting machine" means a machine which will  
cycle continuously without the attention of an operator.  
(2) "Bull ladle," also known as a transfer ladle, means a large vessel used for  
transporting and pouring molten metals.  
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(3) "Cold chamber machine" means a die casting machine where the injection  
plunger and cylinder is not submerged in molten metal, but the molten metal is  
transferred into the cylinder.  
(4) "Die casting" means the injection of molten metal under pressure into dies to  
make various shaped parts.  
(5) "Guard" means a physical barrier or a device which protects a machine or an  
employee.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14504 Definitions; H to M.  
Rule 4504. (1) "Holding furnace" means a furnace designed to hold molten metal  
within a desired temperature range.  
(2) "Hot chamber machine" means a die casting machine where the injection  
mechanism is submerged in the molten metal.  
(3) "Lockout procedure" means a method of shutting off the power to equipment  
and securing it by means of a lock and key.  
(4) "Manually tended" means a machine which has an operator who controls the  
cycle, inserts or removes a part or ladles molten metal.  
(5) "Melting furnace," also known as a breakdown furnace, means a furnace  
designed to convert solid metals into a molten state. It includes a furnace designed as a  
combination melting and holding furnace.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14505 Definitions; P to T.  
Rule 4505. (1) "Parting plane" means the line formed where segments or halves of  
a die meet.  
(2) "Safety door" means a movable guard interlocked to a control system and  
located between the operator and the die.  
(3) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of material or  
object to the maximum designed load or stress applied when in use.  
(4) "Two hand control" means an anti-tie down, anti-repeat actuating device that  
requires concurrent use of both hands of an operator to activate or control a machine.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14507 Employer responsibility.  
Rule 4507. (1) An employer shall provide training to an employee regarding the  
operating procedures, hazards, and safeguards of any assigned job.  
(2) An employer shall not allow a machine to be operated which is not guarded as  
prescribed by this part or where the machine has a known defect which would affect the  
safety of an employee.  
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History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14508 Employee responsibility.  
Rule 4508. (1) An employee shall not operate a machine until he has been trained in  
its operating procedures, hazards and safeguards and has been authorized to operate it.  
(2) An employee shall report immediately to his supervisor a machine, equipment  
or safeguard which is defective.  
(3) An authorized employee shall remove guards from  
a
machine for  
maintenance or set up only. The guard shall be replaced before the machine is returned  
for production.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14511 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 4511. (1) Eye protection with side shields shall be provided and used by an  
employee operating a die casting machine or tending a melting or holding furnace, as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
as referenced in R 408.14502.  
(2) Except for the operator of a cold chamber machine, a face shield shall be  
provided and used by an employee handling molten metals or tending a furnace, as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
as referenced in R 408.14502.  
(3) An employee manually tending a die casting machine or a melting or holding  
furnace shall wear clothing which will cover the arms to hands, legs to feet and have the  
feet covered with hard soled shoes. Spats or leggings shall be provided to the employee,  
at no expense to the employee and used by an employee manually ladling a cold chamber  
die casting machine, tending a melting or holding furnace or transferring molten metal  
unless the employee wears moulders shoes with pant legs covering the tops.  
(4) Other personal protective equipment required for the hazards as described in  
General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced  
in R 408.14502, shall be provided by the employer to an employee, at no expense to the  
employee.  
(5) Open sandals, cloth shoes, exposed rings, or necklaces shall not be worn in the  
work areas. Rings covered by gloves or tape shall not be regarded as exposed.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2015 AACS.  
R 408.14513 Illumination.  
Rule 4513. A machine shall have a minimum of 20 footcandles of  
illumination at the operator's work station.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 3  
R 408.14515 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.14517 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE  
R 408.14521 Machine installation.  
Rule 4521. A machine shall be so located that there will be space for the employee to  
handle the material and operate the machine without interference to or from other  
employees or machines.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14522 Machine controls.  
Rule 4522. (1) An operating control on a machine, except a stop button, shall be so  
located or guarded to prevent accidental contact.  
(2) A machine requiring more than 1 operator shall have controls for each operator  
which shall be activated concurrently before the machine will operate as prescribed in  
R 408.14541(1).  
(3) A machine shall be provided at each work station with a non-concealed  
emergency stop device distinguished by its size or color.  
(4) A machine shall be equipped so that upon power failure it will not automatically  
restart upon restoration of the power.  
(5) An automatic die casting machine shall be equipped with a time delay device or  
circuit that will prevent the machine from recycling if more than 2 seconds delay occurs  
between the automatic demand for recycle and its commencement. It shall be necessary  
for the operator to reset the controls before the machine will restart. Other equivalent  
means may be used that will prevent recycling until the machine is cleared if the intent of  
this subrule is met.  
(6) A safety interlock, exposed to contact, shall be guarded against accidental  
actuation.  
History: 1979 AC; 2015 AACS.  
R 408.14523 Hydraulic and pneumatic systems.  
Page 4  
Rule 4523. (1) Flexible and rigid hydraulic and pneumatic piping and its component  
parts shall have a designed safety factor of not less than 4 and shall be maintained to  
prevent leaks that constitute a hazard.  
(2) A hydraulic pressure relief valve shall be provided on each separate system and  
set to open at a pressure of not more than 10% above the maximum operating  
pressure. The discharge of the valve shall not create a hazard for the employee. A die  
casting machine shall not be operated with the pressure relief valve removed.  
(3) Fire resistant fluid shall be used in equipment where failure of a hydraulic  
system could cause ignition of the fluid by molten metal or flame.  
(4) Hydraulic and pneumatic lines shall be protected from damage due to chafing or  
pinching.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14525 Maintenance and servicing.  
Rule 4525. (1) A power source of a machine or equipment to be repaired or for die  
repair shall be locked out by each employee doing the work if unexpected motion would  
cause injury. Residual pressure shall be relieved or isolated before and during the work if  
unexpected motion would cause injury. The means of isolation shall also be locked out.  
(2) An employee who services or sets up a hot chamber die casting machine  
shall do either of the following:  
(a) Pull the plunger from the goose neck.  
(b) Insert a safety bar to block action of the plunger.  
(3) During service or set up, an extractor shall be locked out as prescribed in  
subrule (1).  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14527 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2015 AACS.  
R 408.14533 Die handling and storage.  
Rule 4533. (1) A die transported by a powered industrial truck shall be moved in a  
manner to prevent the die from falling off. The handling equipment shall be used  
within its rated capacity.  
(2) A die rack, when provided, shall have a designed safety factor of not less than  
2. The shelves shall be level or slanted to the back.  
(3) A die shall not be piled on top of another die unless blocked to prevent  
slipping and falling.  
(4) Where an eye bolt or swivel hoist ring is used in die handling, it shall be made  
of drop forged steel and include a shoulder or a collar set flush. An eye bolt or hoist ring  
shall have a designed safety factor not less than 4. An eye bolt or hoist ring which is  
cracked or bent or has damaged threads or open hooks shall not be used.  
Page 5  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14535 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS  
R 408.14541 Die casting machines generally.  
Rule 4541. (1) A manually tended die casting machine shall be equipped with 1 of  
the following:  
(a) Two-hand constant pressure anti-repeat controls requiring concurrent use of both  
hands during the die closing cycle. The movable platen shall stop or reverse if either  
control is released before the die closes.  
(b) A constant-pressure anti-repeat single hand control located at a point where  
the operator cannot reach the point of operation. The movable platen shall stop or reverse  
if the control is released before the die is closed.  
(c) A safety door, interlocked with the control system, which when opened will  
prevent closing of the dies. The door shall be of a size to keep the operator from  
reaching into the point of operation when the door is closed.  
(d) A manually tended die casting machine installed after July 11, 1973, shall be  
equipped with an interlocked safety door.  
(2) A die casting machine shall have a barrier interlocked to the control system  
on the side opposite the operator. The barrier shall cover the die opening in a manner to  
prevent an employee from reaching into the point of operation. Where the operation  
requires a helper, the barrier may be removed but the controls prescribed in R  
408.14522(2) shall be provided.  
(3) A die casting machine shall be equipped with an interlocked safety door or by  
metal shielding which will protect the operator and other employees from inadvertent  
metal splash or squirting from the parting line.  
(4) Either a long-handled tool shall be furnished and used to remove castings or  
flash from a die casting machine if they are not automatically extracted or ejected or the  
employee shall be protected by a mechanical device which automatically prevents  
closing of the machine.  
(5) An automatic die casting machine shall be equipped with interlocked doors or  
barrier guards of a size and design to keep an employee from reaching into the point  
of operation. A door or barrier may be removed or maintained in an open position where  
an extractor would interfere with its use, if the extractor is guarded as prescribed in R  
408.14544.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 6  
R 408.14543 Die casting machines; hot and cold chamber types.  
Rule 4543. (1) A hot chamber die casting machine shall be equipped with a control  
or cam operated switch which will prevent operation of the metal injection plunger until  
the machine is completely closed.  
(2) A cold chamber die casting machine shall be equipped with a control which will  
prevent the injection of molten metal unless the machine is completely closed.  
(3) A cold chamber die casting machine having a faulty plunger tip which allows  
metal to bypass the tip shall not be used until repaired.  
(4) An automatic ladler on a cold chamber machine shall be so interlocked  
that it will ladle or feed only when the plunger is fully returned to the receiving  
position.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14544 Extractors.  
Rule 4544. (1) A die casting machine using an automatic extractor to remove  
castings shall have the path of travel of the extractor guarded by a barrier if required to  
protect employees in the area.  
(2) Where the extractor does not keep an employee from the point of operation, a  
fixed or interlocked barrier shall be provided.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14545 Automatic safety doors.  
Rule 4545. One hundred eighty days after this part takes effect, a die casting  
machine purchased with an automatic safety door shall be equipped with a retractable  
safety edge which will function to stop and reopen the door in case it is obstructed while  
closing.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14551 Hand and bull ladles and syphons.  
Rule 4551. (1) A bull ladle shall not be transported over the head of an employee or  
otherwise moved in a hazardous manner.  
(2) A bull ladle or the tipping equipment shall be equipped with a safety latch or  
brake. A powered industrial truck carrying a ladle of molten metal shall not travel  
faster than 5 miles per hour.  
(3) A bull ladle of 2,000-pound capacity or more shall be mechanically tilted and  
equipped with an automatic safety latch or brake which shall hold the bull ladle at any  
attitude.  
(4) A bent pipe syphon, when used, shall be preheated before use.  
(5) A ladle, trough or furnace tool shall be free of moisture and preheated before  
being filled with or immersed into molten metal.  
Page 7  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14552 Hot chamber pots and chutes.  
Rule 4552. (1) A hot chamber machine shall be provided with a sheet metal  
shield extending from the cover die platen beyond and on each side of the injection  
mechanism and the holding furnace. The shield shall contain any splashing of molten  
metal which may be caused by the injection system or by the furnace recharging  
operation. A window may be inserted for flame observation.  
(2) A metal chute shall be provided for filling the holding furnace except where  
the molten metal can be transferred to the holding furnace without splash.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14553 Furnaces.  
Rule 4553. (1) Cold or damp metal ingots shall be preheated and dried before  
being added to molten metal.  
(2) A furnace which needs to be tilted for discharge shall have operating  
controls located outside any splash area or the operator shall be protected by a splash  
shield.  
(3) A furnace tender shall be not less than 2 feet from the furnace when tapping or  
plugging, or the tender shall be protected by a splash shield.  
(4) A gas or oil fired melting furnace installed or modified after the effective date  
of this part shall be equipped with a control system which shall:  
(a) Prohibit ignition and combustion until completion of a purge cycle which will  
provide a minimum of 4 complete volume air changes in the ignition and combustion  
chamber.  
(b) Positively and immediately shut off the fuel supply in case of a pilot light or  
combustion failure, or flame failure where direct ignition to the burner is used.  
(5) A holding furnace installed or modified after the effective date of this part shall  
be equipped as prescribed in subrule (4)(b).  
(6) The requirements of subrules (4) and (5) do not apply to a gas or oil melting or  
holding furnace that employs explosion resistant immersion tubes and where the  
products of combustion do not discharge into a closed equipment work chamber or into a  
confined space.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14554 Warning devices.  
Rule 4554. Equipment other than an enclosed trough, used to deliver molten  
metal to a holding furnace or pot, shall be equipped with a warning device which shall be  
activated during delivery and at the beginning of a pour.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 8  
R 408.14555 Sprue cutting machines.  
Rule 4555. A sprue cutting machine shall be equipped with a point of operation  
guard or point of operation device as prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part  
23 “Hydraulic Power Presses,” as referenced in R 408.14502.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS; 2015 AACS.  
R 408.14561 Magnesium generally.  
Rule 4561. (1) Accumulations of magnesium dust on floors, ledges, and beams  
shall be avoided.  
(2) Magnesium chips, shavings, and flash shall be cleaned up and disposed of  
daily or when they constitute a fire hazard. Storage of chips and shavings shall be in  
covered metal drums.  
(3) Smoking, flames, and sparks shall not be allowed where magnesium dust,  
chips, or shavings are present.  
(4) Powdered graphite or dry powdered extinguishing agents made specially  
for magnesium fires shall be used to extinguish a magnesium fire and be available in the  
work area. Water or other extinguishing agents shall not be provided or used.  
History: 1979 AC.  
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