DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
CONSTRUCTION SAFETY STANDARDS  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory affairs by  
sections 19 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1019 and 408.1021 and Executive  
Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011,  
445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 15. EXCAVATORS, HOISTS, ELEVATORS, HELICOPTERS, AND  
CONVEYORS  
GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.41501 Scope.  
Rule 1501. (1) This part applies to mobile hydraulic excavators, personnel hoists, material  
hoists, elevators, helicopters, conveyors, and variations of such equipment when used during  
construction operations.  
(2) This part applies to equipment included in subrule (1) of this rule when used with any  
attachment, whether mechanically attached or suspended.  
(3) These rules do not cover any of the following:  
(a) Equipment included in Construction Safety Standard Part 10 “Cranes and Derricks,” as  
referenced in R 408.41505.  
(b) Excavation equipment other than mobile hydraulic excavators, such as wheel loaders and  
backhoes. This equipment is covered in Construction Safety Standard Part 13 “Mobile  
Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41505 Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 1505. (1) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and are available  
from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado, 80112, USA, telephone  
time of adoption of these rules, as stated in this subrule.  
(a) Power Crane and Shovel Association (PCSA) standard No. 5 “Mobile Hydraulic  
Excavator Standards,” 1983 edition and “Referenced Material for PCSA Standards No. 4 and  
No. 5”, 1982 edition. Cost: $25.00.  
(b) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard A10.4 “Safety Requirements for  
Personnel Hoists and Employee Elevators for Construction and Demolition Operations,” 2004  
edition. Cost: $128.00.  
(c) ANSI/American Society of Safety Engineers standard (ASSE) A10.5 “Safety  
Requirements for Material Hoists,” 1992 edition. Cost: $69.00.  
(d) ANSI/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) A17.1 “Safety Code for  
Elevators and Escalators, Includes Requirements for Elevators, Escalators, Dumbwaiters,  
Page 1  
Moving Walks, Material Lifts, and Dumbwaiters with Automatic Transfer Devices,” 1965  
edition with addenda A17.1a-1967, A17.1b-1968, A17.1c-1969, and A17.1d-1970. Cost:  
$281.00.  
(e) ANSI/ASME A17.2 “Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks -  
Includes Inspection Procedures for Electric Traction and Winding Drum Elevators, Hydraulic  
Elevators, Inclined Elevators, Private Residence Elevators, and Escalators and Moving  
Walks,” 1960 edition with addenda A17.2a-1965, and A17.2b-1967. Cost: $96.00.  
(f) ANSI B20.1, “Safety Standard for Conveyors, and Related Equipment,” 1999 edition.  
Cost: $52.00.  
(2) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the Department of  
Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, P.O. Box 30643,  
Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(3) Copies of the standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the publisher or may  
be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory  
Services Section, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this  
rule, plus $20.00 for shipping and handling.  
(4) The following Michigan occupational safety and health standards (MIOSHA) are  
referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be obtained at no charge from  
the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services  
Section, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at:  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) Construction Safety Standard Part 10 “Cranes and Derricks,” R 408.41001 to  
R 408.41099a.  
(b) Construction Safety Standard Part 13 “Mobile Equipment,” R 408.41301.  
(c) Construction Safety Standard Part 18 “Fire Protection and Prevention,” R 408.41801 to  
R 408.41884.  
(d) Construction Safety Standard Part 22 “Signals, Signs, Tags, and Barricades,”  
R 408.42201 to R 408.42243.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.41505 was corrected at the request of the promulgating agency, pursuant  
to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule containing the error was  
published in Michigan Register, 2016 MR 6. The memorandum requesting the correction was published in  
Michigan Register, 2016 MR 7.  
R 408.41510 Definitions; generally.  
Rule 1510. (1) “Competent person” means a person who is trained, experienced, and capable  
of identifying existing or potential hazards in the surroundings or under working conditions  
that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authority to take  
prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.  
(2) "Operator" means a person who is operating the equipment.  
(3) "Power lines" means electric transmission and distribution lines.  
(4) “Qualified person” means a person who, through attainment of a recognized degree or  
certificate of professional standing or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has  
Page 2  
successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter  
and work.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41515 Power line clearances; generally.  
Rule 1515. (1) When working in proximity to power lines, all equipment covered by this part  
shall maintain clearances as prescribed in Table A “Minimum Clearance Distances.”  
(2) When traveling with no load in proximity to power lines, all equipment covered by this  
part shall maintain clearances as prescribed in Table B “Minimum Clearance Distances While  
Traveling with No Load.”  
(3) The employer shall designate an employee to observe the clearance and give timely  
warning if it is difficult for the operator to maintain the prescribed clearance by visual means.  
TABLE A  
MINIMUM CLEARANCE DISTANCES  
Voltage  
Minimum clearance distance (feet)  
(nominal, kV, alternating current)  
up to 50  
10  
over 50 to 200  
over 200 to 350  
over 350 to 500  
over 500 to 750  
over 750 to 1,000  
15  
20  
25  
35  
45  
(as established by the utility owner or  
operator or registered professional  
engineer who is a qualified person with  
respect to electrical power transmission  
and distribution)  
over 1,000  
Note: The value that follows ‘‘to’’ is up to and includes that value.  
For example, over 50 to 200 means up to and including 200kV.  
TABLE B  
MINIMUM CLEARANCE DISTANCES WHILE TRAVELING WITH NO LOAD  
Voltage  
Minimum clearance distance (feet)  
(nominal, kV, alternating current)  
while traveling  
Up to 0.75  
4
Over .75 to 50  
6
Over 50 to 345  
Over 345 to 750  
Over 750 to 1,000  
10  
16  
20  
Page 3  
(as established by the utility owner or  
operator or registered professional  
engineer who is a qualified person with  
respect to electrical power transmission  
and distribution)  
Over 1,000  
History: 2016 AACS.  
EXCAVATORS  
R 408.41520 Scope.  
Rule 1520. This section applies to mobile hydraulic excavators when used during construction  
operations.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41521 Definition.  
Rule 1521. “Excavator”, for the purposes of this standard, means mobile hydraulic excavator,  
either crawler or rubber-tire mounted. An excavator is a self-propelled machine with an upper  
structure capable of continuous rotation and which digs, elevates, swings, and dumps material  
by action of the boom and arm or telescoping boom with bucket. Equipment that does not  
rotate 360 degrees, such as rubber-tired backhoe, is not considered to be an excavator.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41522 Operator training.  
Rule 1522. An employer shall assure that a prospective operator, before being assigned as an  
operator of an excavator, has been trained in all of the following areas:  
(a) The capabilities of equipment and attachments.  
(b) The purpose, use, and limitations of controls.  
(c) The making of daily inspections.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41523 Inspection requirements.  
Rule 1523. (1) A thorough, annual inspection of all excavators shall be made by a qualified  
person. An employer shall maintain, on the jobsite or attached to the equipment, a copy of the  
latest equipment inspection record with the date and results for each piece of equipment.  
(2) The inspection procedure for excavators in regular service is divided into 2 general  
classifications based upon the intervals and inspection that should be performed. The intervals  
in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the excavator and the degree  
of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The 2 general classifications are  
designated in these rules as “frequent” and “periodic,” with respective intervals between  
inspections as follows:  
Page 4  
(a) Frequent inspection – daily to monthly intervals.  
(b) Periodic inspection – 1 to 12-month intervals, or as specifically recommended by the  
manufacturer.  
(3) All of the following items on all boom-equipped excavators shall be inspected at frequent  
intervals:  
(a) All control mechanisms shall be inspected daily for maladjustment that interferes with  
proper operation.  
(b) All control mechanisms shall be inspected daily for excessive wear of components and  
contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41524 Fire protection.  
Rule 1524. A portable fire extinguisher with a rating of not less than 10BC shall be kept in the  
cab or operating enclosure or within a 200-foot radius of the excavator.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41525 Hand signals.  
Rule 1525. When using hand signals, the signal person, operator, or lift director shall use 1 of  
the following methods:  
(a) Standard hand signals for excavators as shown in Appendix A.  
(b) Non-standard hand signals. When used, the signal person, operator, and lift director, when  
there is one, shall contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand  
signals that will be used.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41526 Operations.  
Rule 1526. (1) An operator shall not leave an excavator unattended with the boom or load  
suspended above the ground, floor, or platform during working operations. The operator shall  
not leave a bucket or blade suspended above the ground when a machine is unattended.  
(2) Windows of an excavator shall be equipped with safety glass or its equivalent. Visual  
distortions that are caused by broken or defective glass and which would affect the safe  
operation of the equipment when in use shall be corrected.  
(3) An employee shall not be permitted under a suspended load.  
(4) The boom or bucket shall not be used for hoisting or transporting employees.  
(5) An excavator shall not be loaded beyond the rated load.  
(6) Hooks that are attached to the bucket or boom that are used for hoisting material shall be  
equipped with self-closing latches or their equivalent where employees are exposed.  
(7) Materials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement.  
(8) A load shall not be moved in a manner that could contact obstructions.  
(9) An employer shall comply with the requirements of the Power Crane and Shovel  
Association (PCSA) standard No. 5 “Mobile Hydraulic Excavator Standards,” 1983 edition  
Page 5  
and “Referenced Material for PCSA Standards No. 4 and No. 5”, 1982 edition as adopted in  
R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41527 Pinch point and struck by protection.  
Rule 1527. If an employee could be struck by the rotating superstructure of an excavator or if  
clearances between the rotating or moving structure of an excavator can create a pinch point  
for an employee, the employer shall do either of the following:  
(a) Barricade the hazardous area.  
(b) Train and instruct each employee to stay out of the danger area and require a danger sign,  
as prescribed in Construction Safety Standard Part 22 “Signals, Signs, Tags, and Barricades,”  
as referenced in R 408.41505, be affixed to the rear and sides of the house and counterweight.  
The danger sign shall have additional lettering to indicate that the counterweight is swinging.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
HOISTS AND ELEVATORS  
R 408.41530 Scope; material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators.  
Rule 1530. This section applies to material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators when used  
during construction operations.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41531 Definitions.  
Rule 1531. (1) "Audible signal" means a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds.  
Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.  
(2) “Base” means the mounting flanges or feet for attachment of a hoist to the machine’s  
supporting structure or foundation.  
(3) “Base-mounted drum hoist” means a self-contained lifting unit that has a motor, a drum  
to receive the lifting cable, and mounting flanges for anchoring.  
(4) “Crosshead” means an overhead structural member that supports the hoist platform to  
which the hoisting or load cables are attached.  
(5) “Elevator” means, for the purposes of this standard, a permanently installed or existing  
passenger or freight elevator used for construction operations.  
(6) “Hoist” means a system of power driven drums, gears, cables, chains, or hydraulic  
cylinders capable of lifting and lowering loads.  
(7) “Hoist car” means the load-carrying unit, including its platform, car frame, car enclosure,  
and car door or gate.  
(8) “Hoist tower” means a vertical structure used to support or house the platform and cab of  
an elevator or hoist.  
Page 6  
(9) "Hoisting" means the act of raising, lowering, or otherwise moving a load in the air with  
equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, ‘‘hoisting’’ can be done by  
means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.  
(10) “Lockout device” means a positive mechanical method for disconnecting the power  
supply.  
(11) “Material hoist” means a mechanism for use in the hoisting or lowering of construction  
or demolition material only. A material hoist is equipped with a platform, car, cage, or bucket  
that moves vertically on guide members.  
(12) “Personnel hoist” means a mechanism and its hoistway that is used for raising or  
lowering personnel or materials, or both, during construction operations, and is equipped with  
a car that moves vertically on guide members.  
(13) “Rated load” for material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators means the maximum  
load permitted by the manufacturer’s specifications and by sections 1 to 24 of 1967 PA 227,  
MCL 408.821 to 408.824, and sections 1 to 10 of 1976 PA 333, MCL 338.2151 to 338.2160,  
respectively.  
(14) “Running rope” means a rope that travels around sheaves or drums.  
(15) “Signal system” means an audible or visual method of communication between the  
equipment operator and the persons on the landing or floors.  
(16) “Standing rope” including guy rope, means a supporting rope that maintains a constant  
distance between the points of attachment to the 2 components connected by the rope.  
(17) “Tie-in” means a rigid device used to affix the hoist tower to the structure.  
(18) "Wire rope" means a flexible rope constructed by laying steel wires into various patterns  
of multi-wired strands around a core system to produce a helically wound rope.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIAL HOISTS, PERSONNEL HOISTS,  
AND ELEVATORS  
R 408.41540 Operator training and conduct.  
Rule 1540. (1) An employer shall limit the operation of material hoists, personnel hoists, and  
elevators to the following entities:  
(a) An employee who has been trained and qualified to operate the hoisting equipment to  
which the employee is assigned.  
(b) Authorized maintenance personnel when performing their duties.  
(2) Before assignment, an employer shall assure that an operator of a material and personnel  
hoist has been trained in all of the following areas:  
(a) The capabilities of the equipment.  
(b) The purpose, use, and limitations of the controls.  
(c) How to conduct daily inspections.  
(d) Operational practices of the assigned equipment through its functions necessary to  
perform the required job.  
(e) Applicable state standards and company rules and regulations.  
(3) An operator shall not engage in any practice that will divert his or her attention while  
engaged in operating a material hoist, personnel hoist, or elevator.  
Page 7  
(4) Each operator shall be responsible for those operations under the operator’s direct control.  
When there is any doubt as to safety, the operator shall stop operations and consult with the  
supervisor before continuing work.  
(5) An operator shall not leave the equipment unattended unless it has been secured and  
rendered inoperable in the operator’s absence.  
(6) When controls are locked out for maintenance or for repair purposes, an equipment  
operator shall not start operations until the lock has been removed by the person or persons  
responsible for the safe operation.  
(7) If a malfunction occurs during the operation of the equipment and the door remains locked,  
the operator and all other personnel shall remain in the hoist car until the operation is restored.  
(8) An operator shall be familiar with the equipment and its proper care. If adjustments or  
repairs are necessary or if any defects are evident, the operator shall report the repairs or defects  
to the responsible supervisor and also notify the next operator of the equipment status.  
(9) A hoist operator shall ensure that the rated capacity of the hoist is not exceeded.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41541 Signaling.  
Rule 15341. (1) A signal system shall be established and communicated to all affected  
employees prior to hoisting operations.  
(2) The signal system shall be posted at the operator station of the hoist.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41542 Wire rope.  
Rule 1542. (1) Wire rope used for material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators shall be  
removed from service when any of the following conditions exists:  
(a) In hoisting ropes and running ropes, 6 randomly distributed broken wires in 1 rope lay or  
3 broken wires in 1 strand in 1 rope lay.  
(b) Abrasion, scrubbing, flattening, peening, kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other  
damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure and causing loss of more than 1/3 of the  
original diameter of the outside wires.  
(c) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause, including damage resulting from a torch or  
any damage caused by contact with electrical wires.  
(d) Reduction from nominal diameter of more than 3/64 inch for diameters up to and including  
3/4 inch; 1/16 inch for diameters 7/8 to 1-1/8 inches; and 3/32 inch for diameters 1-1/4 to 1-  
1/2 inches.  
(e) In standing ropes, more than 2 broken wires in 1 lay in sections beyond end connections  
or more than 1 broken wire at an end connection.  
(2) Hoisting ropes shall be installed in accordance with the wire rope manufacturers'  
recommendations.  
(3) A wire rope shall be in compliance with all of the following requirements:  
(a) The minimum number of hoisting ropes used shall be 3 for traction hoists and 2 for drum-  
type hoists.  
(b) The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight wire ropes shall be 1/2-inch.  
(c) Not less than 2 ropes shall be used for the counterweights on the rack and pinion.  
Page 8  
(d) Safety factors shall be as in Table C “Minimum Factors of Safety for Suspension Wire  
Ropes”.  
(e) The following formula shall be used to calculate the allowable gross load:  
SN  
F
L
=
L = Allowable gross load  
Manufacturer’s  
strength  
rated  
breaking  
S
=
N = Number of parts of rope  
= Safety factor  
F
TABLE C  
MINIMUM FACTORS OF SAFETY FOR SUSPENSION WIRE ROPES  
Rope speed in feet per minute  
Minimum Factor of safety  
50  
75  
7.60  
7.75  
7.95  
8.10  
8.25  
8.40  
8.60  
8.75  
8.90  
9.20  
9.50  
9.75  
10.00  
10.25  
10.45  
10.70  
100  
125  
150  
175  
200  
225  
250  
300  
350  
400  
450  
500  
550  
600  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41543 Manufacturer specifications; rated load; safety devices; postings.  
Rule 1543. (1) An employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and  
limitations applicable to the operation of all material hoists and personnel hoists. If the  
manufacturer's specifications are not available, then the limitations assigned to the equipment  
shall be determined by a qualified person who is competent in the field and shall be based on  
the requirements of ANSI A10.4 “Safety Requirements for Personnel Hoists and Employee  
Elevators for Construction and Demolition operations,” 2004 edition and ANSI A10.5 “Safety  
Page 9  
Requirements for Material Hoists,” 1992 edition, as adopted by reference in R 408.41505. A  
determination shall be documented and recorded.  
(2) Attachments used shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the  
manufacturer.  
(3) The rated load capacities, recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings or  
instructions shall be posted on hoist cars.  
(4) Safety devices shall not be altered or bypassed unless under the direct supervision of a  
qualified person.  
(5) The installation of live booms on hoists is prohibited.  
(6) An employer shall ensure that hoisting equipment and accessories are maintained in a  
condition that will not endanger an operator or other employees.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
MATERIAL HOISTS – ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS  
R 408.41550 Material hoist requirements.  
Rule 1550. (1) The material hoist requirements contained in this rule are in addition to the  
general requirements contained in R 408.41540 to R 408.41543.  
(2) An employer shall ensure that operating rules are established and posted at the operator's  
station of the hoist. Such rules shall include signal system and allowable line speed for various  
loads. Rules and notices shall be posted on the car frame or crosshead in a conspicuous  
location, including the statement "No Riders Allowed."  
(3) A person shall not be allowed to ride on a material hoist, except for inspection and  
maintenance.  
(4) An overhead protective covering of 2-inch planking or other solid material of equivalent  
strength shall be provided on the top of every material hoist car.  
(5) All entrances of the hoistway shall be protected by substantial gates or bars that shall  
guard the full width of the landing entrance from floor to ceiling. All hoistway entrance bars  
and gates shall be painted with diagonal contrasting colors, such as black and yellow stripes.  
(6) Gates or bars protecting the entrance to a hoistway shall be equipped with a latching device  
and be not more than 4 inches from the edge of the landing sill. A gate shall extend a minimum  
of 6 feet 8 inches above the floor.  
(7) An operator's station of a hoisting machine shall have overhead protection equivalent to  
tight planking that is not less than 2 inches thick. The support for the overhead protection shall  
be of equal strength.  
(8) A hoist tower may be used with or without enclosures on all sides. However, whichever  
alternative is chosen, all of the following applicable conditions shall be met:  
(a) When a hoist tower is enclosed, it shall be enclosed on all sides for its entire height with  
a screen enclosure of not more than 1/2-inch mesh of no. 18 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent,  
except for a landing access.  
(b) When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platform, car, or cab shall be totally enclosed  
or caged on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering  
with 1/2-inch mesh of no. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist car enclosure shall  
Page 10  
include the required gates for loading and unloading. An 8-foot high enclosure shall be  
provided on the unused sides of the hoist tower at ground level.  
(9) Car arresting devices shall be installed to function in case of rope failure and shall be  
tested at 90-day intervals.  
(10) All material hoist towers shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer.  
(11) All material hoists shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ASSE A10.5 “Safety  
Requirements for Material Hoists,” 1992 edition, as adopted in R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
PERSONNEL HOISTS AND ELEVATORS - ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS  
R 408.41560 Personnel hoist and elevator requirements.  
Rule 1560. (1) The personnel hoist requirements contained in this rule to R 408.41564  
“Elevators; endless belt-type manlifts” are in addition to the general requirements contained in  
R 408.41540 “Operator training and conduct” through R 408.41543 “Manufacturer  
specifications; rated load; safety devices; postings.”  
(2) An employer shall ensure that an employee who is specifically engaged in installing  
personnel hoists or elevators is licensed by the state of Michigan in accordance with sections  
1 to 24 of 1967 PA 227, MCL 408.801 to 408.824, and sections 1 to 10 of 1976 PA 333, MCL  
338.2151 to 338.2160, respectively, and the rules of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs relating to elevators.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41561 Inspections and testing.  
Rule 1561. (1) An inspection and test of all functions and safety devices of personnel hoists  
and elevators shall be made by a person who meets the criteria of both a competent and  
qualified person, or a competent person who is assisted by 1 or more qualified persons as  
prescribed by the following:  
(a) Before being put into service.  
(b) Following a major alteration of an existing installation.  
(c) At not more than 90-day intervals.  
(2) An employer shall prepare a certification record that includes all of the following  
information:  
(a) The date of the inspection and test of all functions and safety devices that were performed.  
(b) The signature of the person who performed the inspection and tests.  
(c) A serial number or other identifier for the hoist that was inspected and tested. The most  
recent certification record shall be maintained on file on the jobsite.  
(3) In addition to the requirements in subrule (1) of this rule, personnel hoists and elevators  
shall have a load safety test performed by a licensed elevator contractor in the presence of a  
State of Michigan elevator inspector every 90 days as required by ANSI A10.4 "Safety  
Requirements for Personnel Hoists and Employee Elevators for Construction and Demolition  
Operations," 2004 edition, as adopted by reference in R 408.41003a.  
Page 11  
(4) All control mechanisms shall be inspected daily for misadjustments that might interfere  
with proper operation and for excessive wear of components.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41562 General requirements.  
Rule 1562. (1) A hoist tower outside the structure shall be enclosed for the full height on the  
side or sides used to enter and exit the structure. At the lowest landing, the enclosure on the  
sides not used to exit or enter the structure shall be enclosed to a height of not less than 10 feet.  
Other sides of the tower adjacent to floors or scaffold platforms shall be enclosed to a height  
of 10 feet above the level of the floors or scaffolds.  
(2) A hoistway inside a structure shall be enclosed on all 4 sides throughout the full travel of  
the hoistway.  
(3) A hoist tower shall be anchored to the structure at intervals of not more than 25 feet in  
height. When tie-ins are not practical, the tower shall be anchored by means of guys which are  
made of wire rope that is not less than 1/2 of an inch in diameter and which are securely  
fastened to the anchorage to ensure stability.  
(4) Hoistway doors or gates shall be not less than 6 feet 6 inches high, be provided with  
mechanical locks that cannot be operated from the landing side, and be accessible only to  
persons on the hoist car.  
(5) A hoist car shall be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top, except for sides used  
for entry and exit and sides that have gates or doors.  
(6) A door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to the hoist car and shall protect the full  
width and height of the hoist car entrance opening.  
(7) An overhead protective covering that consists of 2-inch planking or other solid material  
of equivalent strength shall be provided on the top of every personnel hoist car.  
(8) Doors or gates shall have electric contacts that do not allow movement of the hoist when  
a door or gate is open.  
(9) A car safety device shall be installed and shall be capable of stopping and holding the  
hoist car and the rated load when traveling at governor-tripping speed.  
(10) A hoist car shall have a capacity and data plate secured in a conspicuous place on the car  
or crosshead.  
(11) Internal combustion engines shall not be permitted for direct drive.  
(12) Normal and final terminal stopping devices shall be provided. Final terminal stopping  
devices shall be installed in the hoistway and shall be mechanically operated.  
(13) An emergency stop switch shall be provided in the hoist car and marked "STOP."  
(14) All personnel hoists used by employees shall be constructed of materials and components  
that are in compliance with the specifications for materials, construction, safety devices,  
assembly, and structural integrity as stated in ANSI standard A10.4 “Safety Requirements for  
Personnel Hoists and Employee elevators for Construction and Demolition Operations,” 2004  
edition, as adopted in R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
Page 12  
R 408.41563 Bridge tower construction personnel hoists.  
Rule 1563. (1) A personnel hoist that is used in bridge tower construction shall be approved  
by a registered professional engineer and installed in accordance with R 408.41560(2).  
(2) When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the car or hoist platform shall be totally enclosed or  
caged on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering  
with not less than 3/4-inch mesh of no. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist car  
enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading.  
(3) An employer shall ensure that hoists are inspected for defects, serviced, and maintained  
on a weekly basis, and repaired as necessary. If the hoisting equipment is exposed to winds of  
more than 35 miles per hour, authorized personnel must inspect and repair the hoisting  
equipment if necessary before reuse.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
R 408.41564 Elevators; endless belt-type manlifts.  
Rule 1564. (1) Permanent elevators under the care and custody of the employer and used by  
employees for work covered by this act shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASME  
A17.1 “Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, Includes Requirements for Elevators,  
Escalators, Dumbwaiters, Moving Walks, Material Lifts, and Dumbwaiters with Automatic  
Transfer Devices,” 1965 edition with addenda A17.1a-1967, A17.1b-1968, A17.1c-1969, and  
A17.1d-1970, and inspected in accordance with ANSI/ASME A17.2 “Guide for Inspection of  
Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks - Includes Inspection Procedures for Electric  
Traction and Winding Drum Elevators, Hydraulic Elevators, Inclined Elevators, Private  
Residence Elevators, and Escalators and Moving Walks,” 1960 edition with addenda A17.2a-  
1965, and A17.2b-1967, as adopted in R 408.41505.  
(2) When multiple permanent elevators are available and 1 elevator is being used for  
construction or renovation purposes, that elevator shall be for the exclusive use of construction  
personnel and shall be operated by a designated operator. The elevator signal system shall be  
separate from any other elevators.  
(3) The use of endless belt-type manlifts for construction is prohibited.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
BASE-MOUNTED DRUM HOISTS  
R 408.41570 Base-mounted drum hoists; general requirements.  
Rule 1570. (1) Exposed moving parts, such as gears, projecting screws, setscrews, chain,  
cables, chain sprockets, and reciprocating or rotating parts, which constitute a hazard, shall be  
guarded.  
(2) All controls used during the normal operation cycle shall be located within easy reach of  
the operator's station.  
(3) An employer shall ensure that electric motor operated hoists are provided with all of the  
following:  
Page 13  
(a) A device to disconnect all motors from the line upon power failure and not permit any  
motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the "off" position.  
(b) Where applicable, an overspeed preventive device.  
(c) A means whereby remotely operated hoists stop when any control is ineffective.  
(4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design,  
construction, installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operations, as prescribed by  
the manufacturer.  
(5) This rule does not apply to base-mounted drum hoists used in conjunction with derricks.  
Base-mounted drum hoists used in conjunction with derricks shall conform to Construction  
Safety Standard Part 10 “Cranes and Derricks,” as referenced in R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
OVERHEAD HOISTS  
R 408.41580 Overhead hoists; general requirements.  
Rule 1580. (1) The safe working load of the overhead hoist, as determined by the manufacturer,  
shall be indicated on the hoist and shall not be exceeded.  
(2) The supporting structure to which the hoist is attached shall have a safe working load  
equal to the working load of the hoist.  
(3) The support shall be arranged so as to provide for free movement of the hoist and shall  
not restrict the hoist from lining itself up with the load.  
(4) The hoist shall be installed only in locations that will permit the operator to stand clear of  
the load at all times.  
(5) Air hoists shall be connected to an air supply of sufficient capacity and pressure to safely  
operate the hoist. All air hoses supplying air shall be positively connected to prevent the air  
hose becoming disconnected during use.  
(6) All overhead hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for construction, design,  
installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed by the manufacturer.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
HELICOPTERS  
R 408.41590 Helicopters; general requirements.  
Rule 1590. (1) This rule applies to helicopters used during construction operations.  
(2) Helicopter cranes must comply with any applicable regulations of the federal aviation  
administration.  
(3) Prior to each day's operation a briefing shall be conducted by the pilot, ground crew,  
general contractor overseeing the work, and any sub-contractors involved. This briefing shall  
set forth the plan of operation for the pilot and ground personnel.  
(4) A load shall be properly slung. Tag lines shall be of a length that will not permit the tag  
line being drawn up into rotors. Pressed sleeve, swedged eyes, or equivalent means shall be  
Page 14  
used for all freely suspended loads to prevent hand splices from spinning open or cable clamps  
from loosening.  
(5) All electrically operated cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device so  
designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition these cargo hooks shall  
be equipped with an emergency mechanical control for releasing the load. The hooks shall be  
tested prior to each day's operation by the helicopters employees, pilot, or mechanic, to  
determine that the release functions properly both electrically and mechanically.  
(6) Personal protective equipment shall meet the following requirements:  
(a) Personal protective equipment for employees receiving the load shall consist of complete  
eye protection and hard hats secured by chinstraps.  
(b) An employee shall not wear loose-fitting clothing likely to flap in the downwash, and thus  
be snagged on hoist line.  
(7) An employer shall ensure that every practical precaution is taken to provide for the  
protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within  
100 feet of the place of lifting the load, depositing the load, and all other areas susceptible to  
rotor downwash shall be secured or removed.  
(8) An employer shall ensure that good housekeeping shall be maintained in all helicopter  
loading and unloading areas.  
(9) The helicopter operator shall be responsible for size, weight, and manner in which loads  
are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator believes the lift  
cannot be made safely, the lift shall not be made.  
(10) When employees are required to perform work under hovering craft, a safe means of  
access shall be provided for employees to reach the hoist line hook and engage or disengage  
cargo slings. Employees shall not perform work under hovering craft except when necessary  
to hook or unhook loads.  
(11) Static charge on the suspended load shall be dissipated with a grounding device before  
ground personnel touch the suspended load, or protective rubber gloves shall be worn by all  
ground personnel touching the suspended load.  
(12) The weight of an external load shall not exceed the manufacturer's rating.  
(13) Hoist wires or other gear, except for container or roll off a reel, shall not be attached to  
any fixed ground structure, or allowed to foul on any fixed structure.  
(14) When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions, ground personnel shall exercise  
special caution to keep clear of main and stabilizing rotors. An employer shall take precautions  
to eliminate as far as practical reduced visibility.  
(15) Signal systems between aircrew and ground personnel shall be understood and checked  
in advance of hoisting the load. This requirement applies to either radio or hand signal systems.  
When using hand signals, either of the following methods shall be used:  
(a) Standard helicopter hand signals as shown in Appendix B.  
(b) Non-standard hand signals. When used, the signal person, operator, and lift director, when  
there is one, shall contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand  
signals that will be used.  
(16) No unauthorized person shall be allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter  
when the rotor blades are turning.  
(17) Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall  
remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position. Employees shall avoid the area  
Page 15  
from the cockpit or cabin rearward unless authorized by the helicopter operator to work in the  
area.  
(18) An employer shall ensure that sufficient ground personnel are provided when required  
for safe helicopter loading and unloading operations.  
(19) There shall be constant reliable communication between the pilot and a designated  
employee of the ground crew who acts as a signalman during the period of loading and  
unloading. This signalman shall be distinctly recognizable from other ground personnel.  
(20) Open fires shall not be permitted in an area that could result in such fires being spread  
by the rotor downwash.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
CONVEYORS  
R 408.41595 Conveyors; general requirements.  
Rule 1595. (1) This rule applies to conveyors when used during construction operations.  
(2) Means for stopping the motor or engine shall be provided at the operator's station.  
Conveyor systems shall be equipped with an audible warning signal to be sounded immediately  
before starting up the conveyor.  
(3) If the operator's station is at a remote point, the employer shall provide similar provisions  
for stopping the motor or engine at the motor or engine location.  
(4) Emergency stop switches shall be arranged so that the conveyor cannot be started again  
until the actuating stop switch has been reset to running or "on" position.  
(5) Screw conveyors shall be guarded to prevent employee contact with turning flights.  
(6) Where a conveyor passes over work areas, aisles, or thoroughfares, the employer shall  
provide suitable guards to protect employees required to work below the conveyors.  
(7) The employer shall ensure that all crossovers, aisles, and passageways are conspicuously  
marked by suitable signs, as required by Construction Safety Standard Part 22 “Signals, Signs,  
Tags, and Barricades,” as referenced in R 408.41505.  
(8) The employer shall ensure that conveyors are locked out or otherwise rendered inoperable,  
and tagged out with a "DO NOT OPERATE" tag during repairs and when operation is  
hazardous to employees performing maintenance work.  
(9) All conveyors in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction,  
inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed in the ANSI B20.1, “Safety  
Standard for Conveyors, and Related Equipment,” 1999 edition, as adopted in R 408.41505.  
History: 2016 AACS.  
Page 16