DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY STANDARDS  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-18 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4,  
MCL 408.1016, 408.1021, 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 51. LOGGING  
GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.15101 Scope and application.  
Rule 5101. (1) These rules establish safety practices, means, methods, and  
operations for all types of logging, regardless of the end use of the wood, including  
pulpwood and timber harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles,  
pilings, and other forest products. These rules do not apply to the construction or use  
of cable yarding systems.  
(2) These rules apply to all logging operations as defined by R 408.15107(7).  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15102 Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 5102. (1) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and  
are available from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado, 80112,  
USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at website:  
subrule.  
(a) American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard, ANSI B175.1 “Gasoline-  
Powered Chain Saws Safety Requirements,” 1991 edition. Cost: $57.00.  
(b) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standard, ASME B56.6  
“Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks,” 1992 edition with addenda. Cost:  
$120.00.  
(c) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard, SAE J185 “Access Systems  
for Off-Road Machines,” June 1988 edition. Cost: $98.00.  
(d) SAE J231 “Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Protective  
Structures (FOPS),” January 1981 edition. Cost: $98.00.  
(e) SAE J386 “Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines,” June  
1985 edition. Cost: $98.00.  
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(f) SAE J397 “Deflection Limiting Volume-Protective Structures Laboratory  
Evaluation,” April 1988 edition. Cost: $98.00.  
(g) SAE J1040 “Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for  
Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry, and Mining Machines,” April 1988 edition. Cost:  
$98.00.  
(2) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the  
Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Standards Section, 530 West  
Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(3) Copies of the standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the  
publisher or may be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs,  
MIOSHA Standards Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing,  
Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus $20.00 for shipping and  
handling.  
(4) The following Michigan occupational safety and health standards (MIOSHA) are  
referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be obtained at no charge  
from the Michigan Department of licensing and regulatory affairs, MIOSHA standards  
section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, MI, 48909-8143 or via the  
the cost, at the time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards for Power Transmission,”  
R 408.10701 to R 408.10765.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 8 “Portable Fire Extinguishers,”  
R 408.10801 to R 408.10839.  
(c) General Industry Safety Standard Part 21 “Powered Industrial Trucks,”  
R 408.12101 to R 408.12193.  
(d) General Industry Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
(e) General Industry Safety Standard Part 52 “Sawmills,” R 408.15201 to  
R 408.15277.  
(f) General Industry Safety Standard Part 55 “Explosives and Blasting Agents,”  
R 408.15501.  
(g) General Industry Safety Standard Part 58 “Aerial Work Platforms,” R 408.15801  
to R 408.15842.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15105 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 5105. (1) "Approved" means, unless otherwise indicated, approval or listing  
by either underwriters laboratories, incorporated, or factory mutual engineering  
corporation.  
(2) "Approved container" means an approved metal or nonmetallic container  
which does not have more than a 6-gallon capacity, which has a spring-closing lid and  
spout cover, and which is designed so that it will safely relieve internal pressure when  
exposed to fire.  
(3) "Arch" means an open-framed trailer or built-up framework that is used to  
suspend the leading ends of trees or logs when they are skidded.  
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(4) "Auger log splitter" means a machine which is for splitting logs and which  
uses a rotating, cone-shaped screw to provide a splitting force to the log.  
(5) "Back cut" means the final cut made in felling a tree. It is made on the side  
away from the direction of fall. See figure 1 of R 408.15156.  
(6) "Ballistic nylon" means a nylon fabric which has high tensile properties  
and which is designed to provide protection from lacerations.  
(7) "Binder" means a wrapper which is a chain or wire rope and which is used to  
bind a load of logs or pulpwood.  
(8) "Buck" or "bucking" means the act of cutting a felled tree into shorter  
lengths.  
(9) "Bucker" means a person who cuts felled trees into shorter lengths.  
(10) "Cable yarding" means the movement of felled trees or logs from the area  
where they are felled to the landing on a system composed of a cable suspended from  
spars or towers, or both. The trees or logs may be either dragged across the ground on  
the cable or carried while suspended from the cable.  
(11) "Chain saw" means a saw which is powered by a gasoline engine, an electric  
motor, or other means and which has its cutting elements on an endless chain. A  
chain saw, for the purpose of this part, is hand-held during use.  
(12) "Chipper" means a mechanical device that reduces logs to small flakes or  
chips.  
(13) "Chock" means a block, often wedge shaped, that is used to prevent  
movement, such as preventing a log from rolling or a wheel from turning.  
(14) "Choker" means a sling that is used to encircle the end of a log for yarding.  
One end of the choker is passed around the load and through a loop eye, end fitting or  
other device at the other end of the sling. The end of the choker that passed through  
the end fitting or other device is then hooked to the lifting or pulling machine.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15106 Definitions; D to H.  
Rule 5106. (1) "Danger tree" means a standing tree that presents a hazard to an  
employee due to conditions such as deterioration or physical damage to the root  
system, trunk, stem, or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree.  
(2) "Debarker" means a machine that removes bark from logs.  
(3) "Decking" means the act of piling logs or pulpwood on a skidway for  
temporary storage.  
(4) "Disabling injury" or "lost time injury" means an injury which prevents a  
person from reporting for the next scheduled work shift or which causes a  
permanent partial impairment.  
(5) "Designated person" means an employee who has the requisite  
knowledge, training, and experience to perform specific duties.  
(6) "Domino felling" means the partial cutting of multiple trees which are left  
standing and which are then pushed over with a pusher tree.  
(7) "Eye protection" means a device worn in front of the eyes, the predominant  
function of which is to protect the eyes from hazards.  
(8) "Fell" or "fall" means to cut down trees.  
Page 3  
(9) "Feller" or "faller" means a person who cuts a tree from its stump.  
(10) "Felling" or "falling" means the act of cutting a tree from its stump.  
(11) "Flammable liquid" means any liquid which has a flash point below 100  
degrees Fahrenheit and which has a vapor pressure of not more than 40 pounds per  
square inch (absolute) at 100 degrees Fahrenheit.  
(12) "Grapple" means a hinged clamping device which is at the working end of a  
line or boom, and which is used to grasp and release forest products during  
skidding, yarding, or loading.  
(13) "Grounded" means the placement of a component of a machine on the  
ground or on a device where it is firmly supported.  
(14) "Guarded" means that an object is covered, fenced, or surrounded so that it is  
not exposed to contact.  
(15) "Guy line" means a line which is used to stay or support spar trees or booms or  
which is used for equipment that needs support.  
(16) "Health care provider" means a health care practitioner operating within the  
scope of his or her license, certificate, registration, or legally authorized practice.  
(17) "Hinge wood" means the portion of a tree which is left uncut and which  
controls the direction of the fall. See figure 1 of R 408.15156.  
(18) "Hydraulic ram log splitter" means a machine for splitting logs that uses  
pressurized fluid to cause a wedge to pass through a log.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15107 Definitions; L to P.  
Rule 5107. (1) "Limb" or "limbing" means the act of cutting the limbs from  
felled or standing trees.  
(2) "Limber" means a person or machine that limbs  
(3) "Loader" means a mechanical device that loads logs.  
(4) "Lodged tree" means a tree that is prevented by another tree from falling to  
the ground.  
(5) "Log" means a segment sawed or split from a felled tree, such as a section,  
bolt, or tree length.  
(6) "Logging equipment" means a mechanically powered device used in  
logging operation.  
a
(7) "Logging operations" means the operations that are associated with felling  
and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery, such as any of the  
following:  
(a) Marking.  
(b) Felling.  
(c) Bucking.  
(d) Limbing.  
(e) Debarking.  
(f) Chipping.  
(g) Yarding.  
(h) Loading.  
(i) Unloading.  
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(j) Storing.  
The term includes the transporting of machines, equipment, and personnel from  
one logging site to another.  
(8) "Machine" means a piece of stationary or mobile equipment which is a self-  
contained powerplant, which is operated off the road and which is used for the  
movement of material. "Machine" includes any of the following:  
(a) A tractor.  
(b) A skidder.  
(c) A front-end loader.  
(d) A scraper.  
(e) A grader.  
(f) A bulldozer.  
(g) A swing yarder.  
(h) A log stacker.  
(i) A mechanical felling device, such as tree shears or a feller-buncher.  
"Machine" does not include an airplane or aircraft such as helicopters.  
(9) "Mechanical felling device" or "feller buncher" means equipment used to harvest  
trees.  
(10) "Mechanical ram log splitter" means a machine for splitting logs that uses a  
mechanical means to cause a wedge to pass through a log.  
(11) "Mobile equipment" means equipment, except for an over-the-road vehicle,  
that is required to be mobile to perform a part of its work function.  
(12) "Notch" or "undercut" means a notch made in a standing tree at the  
beginning of the felling operation that guides the direction of the fall of the tree. See  
figure 1 of R 408.15156.  
(13) "Prehauling" or "forwarding" means the hauling of forest products, before  
highway or rail movement, by off-the-road vehicles, by nonhighway transport, or by  
any other means where the forest products travel clear of the ground.  
(14) "Protective helmet," "hard hat," or "safety hat" means a rigid device which  
is designed to protect the head from flying and falling objects or electrical shock, or  
both, and which is held on the head by a suitable means of suspension.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15108 Definitions R to Y.  
Rule 5108. (1) "Rated capacity" means the maximum load that a system, vehicle,  
machine, or piece of equipment was designed by the manufacturer to handle.  
(2) "Root wad" means the ball of a tree root and dirt that is pulled from the  
ground when a tree is uprooted.  
(3) "Serviceable condition" means a state or ability of a tool, machine, vehicle, or  
other device to operate as it was intended by the manufacturer to operate.  
(4) "Skid" or "skidding" means the act of dragging logs on the ground.  
(5) "Skidder" means a person or machine that skids logs.  
(6) "Slasher saw" means a mechanical saw used for bucking.  
Page 5  
(7) "Slope" means the increase or decrease in altitude over a horizontal distance  
expressed as a percentage. For example, a change of altitude of 20 feet (6m) over a  
horizontal distance of 100 feet (30m) is expressed as a 20% slope.  
(8) "Snag" means a standing dead tree.  
(9) "Spring pole" means a tree, sapling, or limb which is bent under tension and  
which springs out after the tension is released.  
(10) "Tie down" means a chain, cable, steel strips, or fiber webbing and binders  
attached to a truck, trailer, or other conveyance as a means of securing loads and  
preventing them from shifting or moving when being transported.  
(11) "Tractor" means a powered vehicle which is for off-the-road hauling or towing  
and which is equipped with crawler tracks or wheels.  
(12) "Tree harvester" means a mechanized, self-propelled machine that is designed  
to perform 1 or several logging functions, such as felling, limbing, bucking,  
chipping, skidding or loading.  
(13) "Undercut" means a notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall  
and to prevent splitting or kickback.  
(14) "Vehicle" means a car, bus, truck, trailer, or semitrailer which is owned,  
leased, or rented by an employer and which is used to transport employees or move  
material.  
(15) "Winching" means the winding of cable or rope onto a spool or drum.  
(16) "Yarding" means the movement of logs from the place they are felled to a  
landing.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
EMPLOYER--EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES  
R 408.15111 Rules; employer’s duties.  
Rule 5111. An employer shall review these rules with each new employee.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15112 New jobs; employer’s duties.  
Rule 5112. Before an employee starts work on a new job, an employer shall do all of  
the following:  
(a) Familiarize the employee with the type of work to be performed in the job.  
(b) Instruct the employee in the safeguards and hazards of the assigned job.  
(c) Instruct the employee in the operation, adjustment, maintenance, and safe  
practices of equipment.  
(d) Issue an operator’s permit card of the type prescribed in General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 21 “Powered Industrial Trucks,” as referenced in R 408.15102, if off-road  
mobile equipment is to be operated.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
Page 6  
R 408.15113 Supervision, maintenance, and inspection by employers.  
Rule 5113. An employer shall do all of the following:  
(a) Provide supervision necessary to enforce compliance with these rules.  
(b) Maintain buildings, equipment, and workplaces in a safe and  
condition.  
orderly  
(c) Conduct inspections as necessary to ensure compliance with these rules.  
(d) Not permit an employee to work alone on felling or skidding operations.  
(e) Not permit an employee to work in an area with equipment which is in a  
dangerous condition.  
(f) Account for the presence of each employee at the end of each workday.  
(g) Ensure that all safeguards are installed and functional before allowing  
equipment to be used.  
(h) Only permit a designated and trained employee  
equipment.  
to  
operate  
logging  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15114 Injuries, first aid, and first aid training.  
Rule 5114. (1) An employer shall provide first aid kits at each worksite where trees  
are being cut, at each active landing, and on each employee transport vehicle. The  
number of first aid kits and the content of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, the  
number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the worksite.  
(2) The number and content of first aid kits may be reviewed and approved annually  
by a health care provider.  
(3) An employer shall maintain the contents of each first aid kit in a serviceable  
condition.  
(4) An employer shall have not less than 1 employee at a jobsite who is trained in  
American red cross first aid or who has equivalent training.  
(5) An employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or  
has received first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training that is in  
compliance with the requirements specified in subrule (11) of this rule.  
(6) An employer shall assure that each employee receives first aid training at least  
once every 3 years and receives CPR training at least annually.  
(7) An employer shall assure that each employee's first aid and CPR training or  
certificate of training, or both, remain current.  
(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person.  
(9) An employer shall assure that all training required by this rule is presented in a  
manner that the employee is able to understand. An employer shall assure that all training  
materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy,  
and language skills of the employees being trained.  
(10) The contents of the first aid kit shall be adequate for small worksites, which  
consist of approximately 2 or 3 employees. When larger operations or multiple operations  
are being conducted at the same location, additional first aid kits shall be provided at the  
worksite or additional quantities of supplies shall be included in the first aid kits.  
Page 7  
A first aid kit on a logging worksite shall contain at least all of the following items:  
(a) Gauze pads that are not less than 4 inches by 4 inches.  
(b) Two large gauze pads that are not less than 8 inches by 10 inches.  
(c) Box adhesive bandages, such as Band-Aids®.  
(d) One package gauze roller bandage that is not less than 2 inches wide.  
(e) Two triangular bandages.  
(f) A wound cleaning agent, such as sealed, moistened towelettes.  
(g) Scissors.  
(h) At least 1 blanket.  
(i) Tweezers.  
(j) Adhesive tape.  
(k) Latex gloves.  
(l) Resuscitation equipment, such as a resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask.  
(m) Two elastic wraps.  
(n) Splint.  
(o) Directions for requesting emergency assistance.  
(11) At a minimum, for employees engaged in logging activities, first aid and CPR  
training shall be conducted using conventional methods of training, such as lecture,  
demonstration, practical exercise, and examination, both written and practical. In  
addition, the length of training shall be sufficient to assure that trainees understand the  
concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures  
required in subrule (12) of this rule.  
(12) At a minimum, first aid and CPR training shall consist of instruction in all of  
the following areas:  
(a) The definition of first aid.  
(b) The legal issues of applying first aid, such as good samaritan laws.  
(c) Basic anatomy.  
(d) Patient assessment and first aid for all of the following:  
(i) Respiratory arrest.  
(ii) Cardiac arrest.  
(iii) Hemorrhage.  
(iv) Lacerations and abrasions.  
(v) Amputations.  
(vi) Musculoskeletal injuries.  
(vii) Shock.  
(viii) Eye injuries.  
(ix) Burns.  
(x) Loss of consciousness.  
(xi) Extreme temperature exposure, such as hypothermia or hyperthermia.  
(xii) Paralysis.  
(xiii) Poisoning.  
(xiv) Loss of mental functioning, such as psychosis and hallucinations.  
(e) CPR.  
(f) The application of dressings and slings.  
(g) The treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures.  
(h) The immobilization of injured persons.  
Page 8  
(i) The handling and transporting of injured persons.  
(j) The treatment of bites or stings or for contact with poisonous plants or animals.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15116 Employees; general duties.  
Rule 5116. An employee shall do all of the following:  
(a) Abide by the safety procedures pertaining to the job as prescribed by the  
employer and comply with these rules.  
(b) Examine the work area and equipment that is going to be used before work  
begins and report a dangerous or unsafe condition in the work area or equipment to the  
immediate supervisor.  
(c) Refrain from a reckless practice or action which could result in an accident or  
injury.  
(d) Not operate a machine without  
authorization.  
experience,  
instruction,  
and  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15117 Environmental conditions.  
Rule 5117. (1) All work shall stop and employees shall be moved to a place of  
safety when environmental conditions, such as, but not limited to, electrical storms,  
strong winds which may affect the fall of a tree, heavy rain or snow, extreme cold, dense  
fog, fires, mudslides, or darkness, or other hazardous weather conditions that would be  
dangerous to the employees occur.  
(2) A falling operation shall stop if a wind prevents a tree from falling in the desired  
direction or if the faller’s vision is impaired by a weather condition or darkness.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15117a Work areas.  
Rule 5117a. (1) Employees shall be spaced, and the duties of each employee shall be  
organized, so that the actions of one employee will not create a hazard for any other  
employee.  
(2) Work areas shall be assigned so that trees cannot fall into an adjacent occupied  
work area. The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall be not less than 2  
tree lengths of the trees being felled. The distance between adjacent occupied work areas  
shall reflect the degree of slope, the density of the growth, the height of the trees, the soil  
structure, and other hazards reasonably anticipated at the worksite. A distance of more  
than 2 tree lengths shall be maintained between adjacent occupied work areas on any  
slope where the rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable.  
(3) Each employee shall work in a position or location that is within visual or  
audible contact of another employee.  
History: 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
Page 9  
R 408.15117b Signaling and signal equipment.  
R 5117b. Hand signals or audible contact, such as, but not limited to, whistles,  
horns, or radios, shall be utilized whenever noise, distance, restricted visibility, or other  
factors prevent clear understanding of normal voice communications between employees.  
History: 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15118 Fire prevention.  
Rule 5118. (1) Smoking or an open flame is prohibited within 10 feet of an engine  
being refueled.  
(2) Refueling shall not be done in an area where conditions are conducive to fire.  
(3) An approved fire extinguisher, as prescribed in the General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 8 “Portable Fire Extinguishers,” as referenced in R 408.15102, shall be  
provided and maintained on each machine and on each vehicle.  
(4) Gasoline or other flammable liquid shall be stored in an approved container that  
is located not less than 25 feet from a source of ignition.  
(5) Machinery shall be kept free of accumulations of flammable material.  
(6) Flammable liquids shall not be transported on a personnel carrier unless a  
storage box is provided. Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be transported in  
the driver compartment or any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.  
(7) Flammable liquids shall not be used to start a fire or as a cleaning solvent.  
(8) The engine of a powered machine shall be shut off while being refueled and  
serviced.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15119 Training.  
Rule 5119. (1) An employer shall provide training for each employee, including  
supervisors, at no cost to the employee.  
(2) The training shall be provided as follows:  
(a) As soon as possible after July 2, 1996, initial training for each current and new  
employee.  
(b) Before initial assignment for each new employee.  
(c) When an employee is assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or  
vehicles.  
(d) When an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance.  
(3) At a minimum, training shall consist of all of the following elements:  
(a) The safe performance of assigned work tasks.  
(b) The safe use, operation, and maintenance of tools, machines, and vehicles that  
the employee uses or operates, including an emphasis on understanding and following the  
manufacturer’s operating and maintenance instructions, warnings, and precautions.  
(c) The recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee’s  
specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or  
control the hazards.  
Page 10  
(d) The recognition, prevention, and control of other safety and health hazards in the  
logging industry.  
(e) The procedures, practices, and requirements of the employer’s worksite.  
(f) The requirements of these rules.  
(4) The training of an employee due to unsafe job performance or before the  
assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles may be limited to  
the elements in subrule (3) of this rule that are relevant to the circumstances giving rise to  
the need for training.  
(5) Each current employee who has received training in the particular elements  
specified in subrule (3) of this rule shall not be required to be retrained in those elements.  
(6) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements  
specified in subrule (3) of this rule shall not be required to be retrained in those elements  
before initial assignment.  
(7) An employer shall train each current and new employee in the elements for  
which the employee has not received training.  
(8) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained shall work  
under the close supervision of a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the  
employer the ability to safely perform his or her new duties independently.  
(9) An employer shall verify training by preparing a written certification record that  
contains all of the following information:  
(a) The name or other identity of the employee trained.  
(b) The date or dates of the training.  
(c) The signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the  
employer.  
If an employer relies on training conducted before the employee’s hiring or  
completed before the effective date of this rule, then the certification record shall indicate  
the date on which the employer determined the previous training was adequate.  
(10) The employer shall maintain the most recent training certification for an  
employee.  
(11) An employer shall hold safety and health meetings as necessary, but at least  
once each month for each employee. Safety and health meetings may be conducted  
individually, in crew meetings, in larger groups, or as part of other staff meetings.  
History: 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT  
R 408.15120 Personal protective equipment generally.  
Rule 5120. (1) An employer shall assure that personal protective equipment,  
including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a  
serviceable condition.  
(2) An employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any  
personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use  
during each work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable personal  
protective equipment shall be replaced before work is commenced.  
Page 11  
History: 1996 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15121 Clothing of workers near moving machinery.  
Rule 1521. A person working near moving machinery shall wear close fitting,  
fastened clothing.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15122 Protective helmets.  
Rule 5122. An employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that  
each employee wears, a protective helmet on the jobsite as prescribed in General Industry  
Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15123 Eye and face protection.  
Rule 5123. (1) An employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure  
that each employee wears, eye protection as prescribed in General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
(2) A steel wire or nylon mesh screen that is strong enough to protect the face to  
below the nose from chips or sawdust from a chain saw or where there is potential for  
facial injury shall be provided by the employer and worn by the employee. Face  
protection shall be in compliance with the requirements of General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15124 Gloves.  
Rule 5124. (1) An employee on a logging operation who is working with a wire  
rope or sharp object that may cause an injury to the hand shall wear gloves of a  
suitable type. The gloves shall be provided by the employer at no expense to the  
employee and shall provide adequate protection from puncture wounds, cuts, and  
lacerations.  
(2) Gloves that can be caught and pulled into a pinch point or rotating equipment  
shall not be worn.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15125 Foot and leg protection.  
Rule 5125. (1) An employer shall assure that each employee wears foot protection,  
such as heavy-duty logging boots which are waterproof or water-repellent and which  
Page 12  
cover and provide support to the ankle. The employer shall assure that each employee  
who operates a chain saw wears foot protection that is constructed with cut-resistant  
material that will protect the employee’s foot against contact with a running chain saw.  
The employer shall assure that each employee wears sharp, calk-soled boots or other slip-  
resistant type boots where the employer demonstrates that they are necessary for the  
employee's job, the terrain, the timber type, and the weather conditions, provided that  
foot protection otherwise required by this rule is met.  
(2) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each  
employee who operates a chain saw wears leg protection made of cut-resistant material,  
such as ballistic nylon. The leg protection shall cover the full length of the thigh to the  
top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chain saw.  
Exception: This requirement does not apply when an employee is working as a  
climber if the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by wearing leg  
protection in the particular situation, or when an employee is working from a vehicular  
mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of General  
Industry Safety Standard Part 58 “Aerial Work Platforms,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15126 Rescinded.  
History: 1954 ACS 61, Eff. Feb. 16, 1970; rescinded 1954 ACS 79, Eff. May 16, 1974.  
EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS  
R 408.15127 Explosives and blasting agents, generally.  
Rule 5127. (1) Explosives and blasting agents shall be stored, handled, transported,  
and used in accordance with the requirements of General Industry Safety Standard Part  
55 “Explosives and Blasting Agents,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
(2) Only a designated person shall handle or use explosives and blasting agents.  
(3) Explosives and blasting agents shall not be transported in the driver compartment  
or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.  
History: 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
HAND-HELD CHAIN SAWS  
R 408.15130 Hand and portable powered tools, generally.  
Rule 5130. (1) An employer shall assure that each hand and portable powered tool,  
including any tool provided by an employee, is maintained in servicable condition.  
Page 13  
(2) An employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool provided by an  
employee, is inspected before initial use during each work shift. At a minimum, all of the  
following items shall be inspected:  
(a) Handles and guards, to assure that they are sound, tight-fitting, properly shaped,  
free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place.  
(b) Controls, to assure proper function.  
(c) Chain saw chains, to assure proper adjustment.  
(d) Chain saw mufflers, to assure that they are operational and in place.  
(e) Chain brakes and nose-shielding devices, to assure that they are in place and  
function properly.  
(f) Heads of shock, impact-driven, and driving tools, to assure that there is no  
mushrooming.  
(g) Cutting edges, to assure that they are sharp and properly shaped.  
(h) All other safety devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly.  
(3) An employer shall assure that each tool is used only for the purpose for which it  
has been designed.  
(4) When the head of any shock, impact-driven, or driving tool begins to chip, it  
shall be repaired or removed from service.  
(5) The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in accordance with the  
manufacturer’s specifications when it becomes dull during the work shift.  
(6) A hand tool transported in the same compartment of a vehicle with an employee  
shall be secured to the vehicle in a rack, box, holster, or other means.  
(7) When a hand tool is not being used, it shall be stored in a storage facility at a  
designated location.  
(8) Defective hand tools that could cause injury shall be repaired or replaced.  
History: 1996 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15131 Chain saws generally.  
Rule 5131. (1) A hand-held chain saw shall be equipped with a positive-type, on-off  
ignition switch which is conveniently located on the saw so that the operator can move  
the switch into the off position without relinquishing a secure grip on the saw.  
(2) A manual chain oiler control, if provided on a handheld chain saw, shall be  
located so that it can be operated without relinquishing a secure grip on the saw.  
(3) A hand-held chain saw shall have a guard that protects the throttle lever from  
casual contact and from brush or other foreign objects.  
(4) Each gasoline-powered chain saw shall be equipped with a continuous pressure  
throttle control system that will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released.  
(5) A hand-held chain saw’s moving parts, such as a flywheel, rotating screen, or  
clutch, shall be guarded.  
(6) Each chain saw placed into initial service after July 2, 1996, shall be equipped  
with a chain brake and shall be in compliance with the requirements of ANSI B175.1  
“Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws,” 1991 edition, as adopted in  
R 408.15102.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
Page 14  
R 408.15132 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15133 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15134 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15135 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15136 Hand-held chain saw operations.  
Rule 5136. (1) A chain saw operator shall shut off a hand-held saw motor when  
carrying it for a distance of more than 50 feet (15.2m) or in a hazardous situation. A  
hand-held chain saw shall be carried so as to prevent an employee from coming in  
contact with the saw chain or muffler.  
(2) A chain saw operator shall shut down a chain saw or engage the chain brake  
when carrying a saw less than 50 feet if conditions, such as the terrain, underbrush, and  
slippery surfaces, create a hazard for an employee.  
(3) An approved container shall be used for refueling a hand-held chain saw. A  
hand-held chain saw shall not be started within 10 feet (3m) of a refueling area.  
(4) A chain saw shall be fueled not less than 10 feet (3m) from any open flame or  
other source of ignition.  
(5) A chain saw operator shall hold a hand-held chain saw with both hands during its  
use, with thumbs firmly locked around the handles.  
(6) Before starting a cut, a chain saw operator shall clear away brush and other items  
that would interfere with the cutting operation or the retreat path.  
(7) A chain saw operator shall be certain of his or her footing before starting to cut.  
A chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator  
to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.  
(8) A chain saw operator shall not use a hand-held chain saw to cut directly  
overhead or in a position which could cause him or her to relinquish a secure grip on the  
saw.  
(9) A hand-held chain saw which is purchased after July 2, 1996, and which is used  
by an employee to perform logging operations shall be equipped with both of the  
following:  
Page 15  
(a) A chain brake and a chain designed to reduce kickback.  
(b) A safety bar and a chain designed to reduce kickback.  
(10) A chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the  
manufacturer’s instruction.  
(11) A chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly  
supported. A chain saw shall not be drop started.  
(12) A chain saw shall be shut off or the throttle released before a feller starts to  
retreat.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
OTHER SAWS  
R 408.15137 Slasher saws; guards.  
Rule 5137. (1) A slasher saw blade shall be guarded by a fixed or adjustable  
barrier guard which protects the operator or other employees from inadvertently  
coming into contact with the saw teeth from the back side.  
(2) The fixed or adjustable barrier guard shall be constructed to keep an employee  
from coming into contact with the saw blade and shall be capable of retaining any  
blocks which are cut off and which may be thrown by the blade.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15138 Buzz saws; guards.  
Rule 5138. (1) A buzz saw shall have a hood-type guard which covers the upper  
half of the blade, arbor, and nut at all times. The lower part of the blade shall be  
guarded by 1 of the following:  
(a) A fixed or adjustable barrier guard which protects the operator from  
inadvertently coming into contact with the saw teeth.  
(b) A self-adjusting guard which will prevent employee exposure to the front of  
the saw blade by dropping onto the workpiece before the blade starts the cut and  
remaining in contact with the workpiece until the saw table returns to the forward  
position.  
(c) Movement of the saw table into the saw by use of constant pressure controls  
located so that the operator cannot come into contact with the saw blade.  
(d) Any other type of guarding that provides equal protection.  
(2) A limit chain or other equally effective device shall be provided to prevent the  
buzz saw blade from extending past the front of the saw table.  
History: 1989 AACS.  
LOGGING EQUIPMENT  
Page 16  
R 408.15141 Flying particles.  
Rule 5141. The working parts of a machine shall be guarded to prevent flying  
particles from injuring the operator or any other person in the immediate area.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15142 Operator stands.  
Rule 5142. A machine operator stand or station shall have a slip-resistant  
walking and working surface, which shall be kept clean of slippery substances and  
clear of obstructions, waste, debris, and any other material that might result in fire,  
slipping, or falling. A stand shall have a means of access, such as steps, a ladder, or  
footholds and handholds. If the stand is totally enclosed, it shall be ventilated.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15143 Controls.  
Rule 5143. (1) A machine control shall be located within easy reach of the  
operator.  
(2) Each control shall be identified as to its function by a durable label which is  
visible to the operator when in the operator zone.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15144 Rollover protection and cab guards.  
Rule 5144. (1) Each tractor, skidder, swing yarder, log stacker, and mechanical  
felling device, such as a tree shears or feller-buncher, that is placed into initial service  
after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with falling object protective structure (FOPS)  
or rollover protective structure (ROPS), or both. The employer shall replace FOPS or  
ROPS that have been removed from any machine.  
Exception: This requirement does not apply to machines that are capable of 360  
degree rotation.  
(2) For each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, the FOPS shall be  
installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with SAE J231, “Minimum Performance  
Criteria for Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS),” January 1981 edition, as  
adopted in R 408.15102.  
(3) For each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, the ROPS shall be  
installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with SAE J1040, “Performance Criteria  
for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry, and  
Mining Machines,” April 1988 edition, as adopted in R 408.15102.  
(4) For each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, the ROPS and FOPS shall  
be in compliance with the requirements of SAE J397, “Deflection Limiting Volume-  
ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation,” April 1988 edition, as adopted in R 408.15102.  
(5) A protective structure shall not impede the operator’s normal movements.  
Page 17  
(6) In addition to the rollover protection, the upper portion of the cab of mobile  
equipment shall have both of the following:  
(a) A screen brush guard on all 4 sides, except for doorways. The front, rear, and  
side brush screen shall be 1/4-inch wire, or equivalent, and have not more than a 2-inch  
mesh.  
(b) An overhead canopy guard or solid material that extends the full width and  
length of the canopy.  
(7) The lower portion of a cab of mobile equipment shall be enclosed with solid  
material, except at an entrance, to prevent objects from entering the cab. The entrance  
shall be not less than 52 (1.3m) inches in vertical height from the floor of the cab.  
(8) An enclosure of the upper portion of each cab shall allow maximum visibility.  
Where glass is used on a cab, it shall be safety glass or an equivalent.  
An additional metal screen shall be used where there is exposure to falling or flying  
objects. Provision shall be made to clean glass to assure adequate visibility.  
(9) Transparent material that may create a hazard for the operator, such as cracked,  
broken, or scratched safety glass, shall be replaced.  
(10) A deflector shall be installed in front of each cab to deflect whipping saplings  
and branches. A deflector shall be located so as not to impede visibility and access to the  
cab.  
(11) Each machine operated near cable yarding operations shall be equipped with  
sheds or roofs that are strong enough to provide protection from breaking lines.  
(12) Each forklift shall be equipped with an overhead guard that is in compliance  
with the requirements of ASME B56.6 “Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift  
Trucks,” 1992 edition with addenda, as adopted in R 408.15102.  
(13) Machine access systems that are in compliance with the specifications of SAE  
J185, “Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines,” June 1988  
edition, as adopted in R 408.15102, shall be provided for each machine where the  
operator or any other employee must climb onto the machine to enter the cab or to  
perform maintenance.  
(14) Each machine cab shall have a second means of egress.  
(15) ROPS shall be tested, installed, and maintained in serviceable condition.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15145 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15146 Design and construction of skidding and hauling equipment;  
towing; pre-haulers, and forwarders; crane or clam turning; trucks; operation of  
loading devices; alteration of logging equipment; insulation or shielding or surfaces  
of logging equipment.  
Rule 5146. (1) Skidding and pre-hauling equipment shall be designed and  
constructed to allow a minimum radius vehicle turn without the load contacting the rear  
wheel or the rear track assembly.  
Page 18  
(2) Towed equipment shall be attached in a manner that will allow a full 90-degree  
turn, prevent overrunning, and assure control of the towed equipment.  
(3) A pre-hauler or forwarder shall have a means of retaining loads and a means for  
securing the load during transport.  
(4) A crane or clam that has a turning house shall have not less than 2 feet of  
clearance between the turning radius of the house and a fixed object.  
(5) A truck shall have a guard that protects the operator in the cab from a load shift.  
(6) A truck shall be driven by a licensed driver and have, in its cab, flares and flags  
and an approved multipurpose fire extinguisher that has a rating of not less than 2a-4bc.  
(7) A loading device shall not be operated so that the load passes over the operator  
or employees.  
(8) Logging equipment shall not be altered to exceed the rated capacity, unless the  
alterations are approved by the manufacturer.  
(9) All hot surfaces on logging equipment that have a temperature of more than 150  
degrees Fahrenheit and that could be contacted by the operator during normal starting and  
operating shall be thermally insulated or shielded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15146a Exhaust systems.  
Rule 5146a. (1) Equipment originally equipped with a muffler shall have the muffler  
maintained when the equipment is in operation.  
(2) The exhaust pipes on each machine shall be located so exhaust gases are directed  
away from the operator and mounted or guarded to protect each employee from  
accidental contact.  
(3) An exhaust pipe shall be equipped with a spark arrester. An engine equipped  
with turbochargers does not require a spark arrester.  
History: 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15146b Equipment seating and seatbelts.  
Rule 5146b. (1) Equipment shall be operated only from the position or seat intended  
for that purpose.  
(2) An employer shall ensure that a seat belt is provided on mobile equipment,  
including any vehicle or machine provided by an employee. An employer shall ensure all  
of the following:  
(a) That a seat belt is provided for each vehicle or machine operator.  
(b) That each employee uses the available seat belt while the vehicle or machine is  
being operated.  
(c) That each employee securely and tightly fastens the seat belt to restrain the  
employee within the vehicle or machine cab.  
(d) That each machine seat belt is in compliance with the requirements of SAE J386,  
“Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines,” June 1985 edition, as  
adopted in R 408.15102, which was equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture.  
Page 19  
(e) That seat belts are not removed from any vehicle or machine. The employer shall  
replace each seat belt that has been removed from any vehicle or machine that was  
equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture.  
(f) That each seat belt is maintained in a serviceable condition.  
History: 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15147 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15148 Logging equipment; operations.  
Rule 5148. (1) The engine of a powered logging machine shall be shut off while  
being serviced or adjusted, except where operation is required for adjustment.  
(2) If an operator leaves the seat of any logging equipment that has its engine  
running, then the transmission shall be placed in the park position and the brakes set. If  
equipment is to be left unattended, then the operator shall apply the brake locks, ground  
moving elements, and turn the power off.  
(3) A person, except the operator, shall not ride on mobile logging equipment unless  
the equipment is provided with a passenger seat belt located under a canopy that is in  
compliance with the requirements of R 408.15144 and R 408.15146.  
(4) A logging equipment operator shall do all of the following:  
(a) Operate the equipment within the rated capacity and stability limitations.  
(b) Ensure, before start-up and during operation of the equipment, that employees  
and other objects are not in danger of being struck. Moveable objects, such as a boom,  
grapple, or load, shall not be moved close to or over an employee.  
(c) Check all controls for function and response before starting a work shift.  
(d) When a signalman is used, operate the equipment only on a clearly understood  
signal by the designated signalman.  
(e) When operating near other employees, signal intent to move before moving.  
(f) Dismount from the equipment, stand clear, and be visible when forest products or  
equipment is loaded or unloaded on or from the equipment by other equipment.  
(g) Not place undue shock loads on wire rope.  
(h) Position or secure all moveable elements not in use for safe operation.  
(5) When transporting logging equipment from one job location to another, the  
carrying vehicle shall be capable of sustaining the load and the load shall be secured  
against movement.  
(6) Any overhead electrical distribution or transmission line shall be considered  
energized until the owner or utility indicates otherwise and the line has been visibly  
grounded. Where a line cannot be de-energized, the following clearances shall be  
observed:  
Page 20  
CLEARANCE BOOM  
LOWERED AND NO  
LOAD  
VOLTAGE  
CLEARANCE BOOM RAISED  
to 50 kV  
10 feet  
10 feet plus .4 inch per kV over 50 kV  
4 feet  
51 to 345 kV  
10 feet  
15 feet  
346 to 750 kV 10 feet plus .4 inch per kV over 50 kV  
(7) When winching, the logging equipment shall be positioned so that the winch line  
is near the alignment with the long axis of the equipment.  
(8) If natural light is inadequate during a logging, decking, or loading operation, the  
loader or loading areas shall be artificially lighted.  
(9) A person involved in logging operations shall not work under a suspended load.  
(10) When logging operations involve manual loading, the carrier shall be  
positioned to provide an area free of recognized hazards between the carrier and the pile,  
and the log or pole shall be placed in a manner so that it will not roll or slip.  
(11) When logging operations involve machine loading, all of the following  
provisions apply:  
(a) The piles shall be located in an area free of recognized hazards.  
(b) Only the operator shall be in the work area.  
(c) The load shall be balanced and secured to prevent slippage and loss.  
(12) A person shall not ride a logging crane load, grapple, or hook.  
(13) Truck-mounted loading equipment used in logging operations shall be secured  
before leaving a loading area. A protruding object on a load shall be removed or caution  
flags shall be installed.  
(14) A truck driver shall stop a logging vehicle, dismount, and check and tighten  
loose load binders either just before or immediately after leaving a woods road to enter a  
public road.  
(15) A logging operator shall use care in driving under limbs, trees, and other  
overhanging obstructions.  
History: 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15149 Machines generally.  
Rule 5149. (1) An employer shall assure that each machine, including any machine  
provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition. An employer shall  
assure that each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, is inspected  
before initial use during each work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the  
unserviceable machine shall be replaced before work is commenced.  
(2) An employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are  
available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated. To maintain  
Page 21  
stability, the machine shall be operated within the limitations imposed by the  
manufacturer as described in the operating and maintenance instructions. Each machine  
operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance  
instructions.  
(3) A stationary logging machine and its components shall be anchored or otherwise  
stabilized to prevent movement during operations.  
(4) An employee shall not ride on any load.  
(5) After a machine engine is shut down, pressure or stored energy from hydraulic  
and pneumatic storage devices shall be discharged if the storage device can move the  
moving elements. Each moving element, such as blades, buckets, saws, or shears, shall be  
lowered to the ground or otherwise secured. The machine’s transmission shall be placed  
in the manufacturer’s specified park position and the brake or brake locks shall be  
applied.  
(6) A machine shall be loaded, secured, and unloaded so that it will not create a  
hazard for an employee.  
(7) Brakes shall be sufficient to hold each machine and its rated load capacity on the  
slopes over which it is being operated.  
(8) Each machine placed into initial service on or after September 8, 1995, shall be  
equipped with a secondary braking system, which shall be effective in stopping the  
machine and maintaining parking performance regardless of the direction of travel or  
whether the engine is running and parking brakes that are capable of holding a stopped  
machine stationary are employed.  
(9) Each machine shall be equipped with guarding to protect employees from  
exposed moving elements, such as shafts, pulleys, belts on conveyors, and gears, in  
accordance with the requirements of General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards for  
Power Transmission,” as referenced in R 408.15102.  
(10) Each machine used for debarking, limbing, and chipping shall be equipped with  
guarding to protect employees from flying wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs, and  
other material.  
(11) The guarding on each machine shall be in place when the machine is in  
operation.  
History: 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15150 Vehicles  
Rule 5150. (1) An employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform any  
logging operation, including any vehicle provided by an employee, is maintained in  
serviceable condition.  
(2) An employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform any logging  
operation is inspected before initial use during each work shift. Vehicle defects or  
damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable vehicle shall be replaced before work is  
commenced.  
(3) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are  
available in each vehicle. Each vehicle operator and maintenance employee shall comply  
with the operating and maintenance instructions.  
Page 22  
(4) The employer shall assure that each vehicle operator has a valid operator's  
license for the class of vehicle being operated.  
(5) Mounting steps and handholds shall be provided for each vehicle when necessary  
to prevent an employee from being injured when entering or leaving the vehicle.  
(6) The seats of each vehicle shall be securely fastened.  
(7) The rated capacity of a machine shall not be exceeded.  
(8) The requirements of R 408.15148 (2) and (4)(a), (b), and (h) and R 408.15149  
(7), (8), and (9) shall also apply to each vehicle used to transport an employee off public  
roads or to perform a logging operation, including a vehicle provided by an employee.  
History: 1996 AACS; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
FELLING, LIMBING, BUCKING, AND SKIDDING  
R 408.15151 Felling.  
Rule 5151. (1) An employee, except the faller, shall not be closer to a manual or  
mechanical felling operation than twice the height of the tallest tree being cut.  
(2) Before a cut is started, a feller shall check for the location of all of the  
following and plan and clear a path of retreat:  
(a) Other employees.  
(b) Dead limbs.  
(c) Lean of the tree.  
(d) Wind condition.  
(e) Location of other trees and other hazards.  
(f) Snow or ice accumulation.  
(3) The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line,  
unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat poses a greater hazard than an  
alternate retreat path. Once the backcut has been made, the feller shall immediately  
move a safe distance away on the retreat path and away from the tree being felled.  
(4) If a tree falls on a power line, the utility shall be notified immediately and  
all employees shall remain clear until the utility advises that conditions are safe.  
(5) The immediate supervisor shall be consulted when unfamiliar or unusually  
hazardous conditions necessitate the  
commenced.  
supervisor's  
approval before cutting is  
(6) While manual felling is in progress, a yarding machine shall not be operated  
within 2 tree lengths of trees being manually felled. This subrule does not apply  
to yarding machines performing tree-pulling operations.  
(7) Each danger tree shall be felled, removed, or avoided. Each danger tree,  
including lodged trees and snags, shall be felled or removed using mechanical or other  
techniques that minimize employee exposure before work is commenced in the area of  
the danger tree. If the danger tree is not felled or removed, it shall be marked and  
work shall not be conducted within 2 tree lengths of the danger tree, unless the  
employer demonstrates that a shorter distance will not create a hazard for an employee.  
(8) Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken  
branches and limbs, or other damage before it is felled or removed.  
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Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an  
employee shall be removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree.  
(9) Felling on any slope where the rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably  
foreseeable shall be done uphill from, or on the same level as, previously felled trees.  
(10) Domino felling of trees is prohibited.  
(11) Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee  
shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area or the area shall be avoided.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15152 Working alone.  
Rule 5152. A faller or bucker shall not work beyond hearing range of another  
employee unless a procedure has been established for periodically checking on the  
faller or bucker during the course of the work day.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15153 Lodged tree removal.  
Rule 5153. A person shall not work under a lodged tree. A lodged tree shall be  
pulled or pushed down as soon as possible by mobile equipment in a manner which  
keeps an employee from being struck by the tree.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15154 Dangerous trees and snags.  
Rule 5154. A dead, rotten, or broken limb or tree that is a hazard to road traffic  
woods operations, landings, or camps shall be felled before operations begin. Where  
such a tree may fall on a public road,  
operation.  
a
flagman shall direct traffic during felling  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15155 Springpoles; and other trees under stress.  
Rule 5155. (1) When a springpole or other tree under stress is cut, an employee,  
other than the feller, shall not be closer than 2 tree lengths when the stress is released.  
(2) An employee shall check for springpoles before making a bucking cut or  
limbing.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15156 Notch or undercut; back cut; hinge wood.  
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Rule 5156. (1) A notch or undercut shall be large enough, about 1/3 of the  
diameter, to safely guide the tree and reduce the possibility of the tree splitting. Side  
cuts shall also be used where appropriate.  
(2) A back cut shall be made in each tree being felled. A back cut shall leave  
sufficient hinge wood to guide the tree's fall in the desired direction and to hold the  
tree to the stump during most of its fall. A back cut shall be about 2 inches above  
the undercut and as level as possible; however the back cut may be at or below the  
horizontal cut in tree-pulling operations.  
(3) Before starting a back cut, a faller shall determine that the impact area is clear  
of other employees.  
(4) The saw chain shall be stopped before the feller starts to retreat.  
(5) Where a tree is likely to slide or roll, a feller shall cut from the uphill side and  
keep uphill from previously felled trees.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15157 Bucking or limbing positions; chipping.  
Rule 5157. (1) If possible, a limber shall stand on the opposite side of the tree  
trunk from a limb being removed.  
(2) If working on a slope, a bucker shall work from the uphill side.  
When the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to buck or limb on the uphill  
side, the tree shall be secured with chocks to prevent it from rolling, sliding, or  
swinging.  
(3) Trees piled for bucking and logs in a deck shall be piled in a manner that is  
not hazardous.  
(4) Before bucking or limbing wind-thrown trees, precautions shall be taken to  
prevent the root wad, butt, or logs from striking an employee.  
The precautions include chocking or moving the tree to a stable position.  
History: 1979 AC; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15158 Skidding; yarding.  
Rule 5158. (1) A person shall not ride on a log being skidded.  
(2) A skidder operator shall use caution if operating near another person.  
(3) If on a hill, a skidder shall not be operated parallel to the contour of the  
slope.  
(4) If skidding equipment equipped with blades is moving, then the blades  
shall be carried high enough to avoid objects. If skidding equipment is parked, the  
blades on the skidding equipment shall be lowered to the ground.  
(5) A person shall not hook, adjust, or cross winch lines that are under tension.  
(6) A choker setter shall do both of the following:  
(a) Work on the uphill side of a log.  
(b) Position the choker near the end of the log or tree length to allow turning of  
the prehaul or skidding vehicle, to prevent the penetration of the operator station, and  
to reduce the possibility of striking the wheel or track.  
Page 25  
(7) A knot shall not be allowed in a wire rope; however, looping the wire rope  
around the log for purposes of skidding is not considered a knot.  
(8) Only the loading or unloading machine operator and other employees the  
employer demonstrates are essential shall be in the loading or unloading area  
during the skidding operation.  
(9) A yarding line shall not be moved unless the yarder operator has clearly  
received and understood the signal to do so. When in doubt, the yarder operator shall  
repeat the signal and wait for a confirming signal before moving any line.  
(10) A load shall not exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer, or other carrier.  
(11) Towed equipment shall be attached as specified in R 408.15146(4).  
(12) The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, shall be operated at a  
safe distance from all obstructions that may create a hazard for an employee.  
(13) Each yarded tree shall be placed in a location that does not create a hazard for  
an employee and in an orderly manner so that the trees are stable before bucking or  
limbing is commenced.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15159 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
LOADING AND DECKING  
R 408.15161 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15162 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15163 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15164 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
WATER, STORAGE, CHIPPING  
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R 408.15165 Water.  
Rule 5165. A person working in or around water shall wear a life jacket and shall  
not work alone.  
R 408.15166 Storage.  
Rule 5166. (1) Logs and poles shall be piled in a stable manner.  
(2) When steel banding is used, it shall be capable of containing the imposed load  
and shall be placed when the bundle is close to the ground.  
(3) An employee shall not place his or her body underneath a bundle of logs or  
poles.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 MR 4, Eff. Mar. 2, 2017.  
R 408.15167 Chipping.  
Rule 5167. Chipping shall be accomplished as prescribed in R 408.15231 (1), (3)  
and (5) of General Industry Safety Standard Part 52, “Sawmills,” as referenced in  
R 408.15102.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
TRUCK EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION  
R 408.15171 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15172 Side, end, and trip stakes.  
Rule 5172. (1) A side or end stake used in hauling logs shall be made of steel or  
dense hardwood of sufficient strength to remain at a 90 degree angle from the bed of  
a loaded truck.  
(2) A trip stake shall be released from the side of the truck or trailer opposite the  
location of the trip stake.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15173 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15174 Rescinded.  
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History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15175 Transport vehicles  
Rule 5175. (1) A transport vehicle shall be positioned to provide working clearance  
between the vehicle and the deck.  
(2) Only the loading or unloading machine operator and other personnel the  
employer demonstrates are essential shall be in the work area during loading and  
unloading.  
(3) A transport vehicle operator shall not remain in the cab during loading and  
unloading if the logs are carried or moved over the truck cab, unless the employer  
demonstrates that is necessary for the operator to do so.  
If the transport vehicle operator remains in the cab, then the employer shall provide  
protection for the operator, such as reinforcement of the cab.  
(4) Each log shall be placed on a transport vehicle in an orderly manner and be  
tightly secured.  
(5) The load shall be positioned to prevent log slippage or loss during handling  
and transport.  
(6) Each stake and chock which is used to trip loads shall be constructed so that the  
tripping mechanism is activated on the side opposite the release of the load.  
(7) Each tie down shall be left in place over the peak log to secure all logs until the  
unloading lines or other employer demonstrated equivalent protection has been put in  
place. A stake that is strong enough to withstand the forces of shifting or moving logs  
shall be considered equivalent protection if the logs are not loaded higher than the  
stake.  
(8) Each tie down shall be released only from the side on which the unloading  
machine operates, except as follows:  
(a) When the tie down is released by a remote control device.  
(b) When the employee making the release is protected by racks, stachions, or other  
protection that the employer demonstrates is capable of withstanding the force of the  
logs.  
(9) The transport vehicle operator shall assure that each tie down is tight before  
transporting the load. While enroute, the operator shall check and tighten the tie down if  
there is reason to believe that the tie downs have loosened or the load has shifted.  
(10) Each deck shall be constructed and located so that it is stable and provides  
each employee with enough room to safely move and work in the area.  
History: 1996 AACS.  
R 408.15180 Firewood and log-splitting operations.  
Rule 5180. (1) An employee who operates a log splitter shall also load the logs  
into the splitter.  
(2) The bed of a hydraulic or mechanical ram splitter shall be constructed so  
that the log or firewood is in a stable position without being held by the operator or  
any other employee at the beginning of the splitting operations.  
Page 28  
(3) Wood shall be split only in the direction of the grain.  
(4) When loading the splitter, an employee shall hold logs or firewood on the sides  
and not on the ends.  
(5) An employee shall keep his or her hands away from the ram, wedge, and  
partly split logs and firewood.  
(6) A splitter shall not be left unattended while running.  
(7) A splitter engine shall not be refueled while running.  
(8) A splitter shall be set up so that the operator is not standing on a slope or a  
slippery surface.  
(9) With the ram fully extended, a clearance of at least 1 inch, but not more than 2  
inches, shall be maintained between the pressure plate and the wedge.  
(10) An auger log splitter shall include a permanently attached means to prevent  
log rotation.  
(11) The operating control on a splitter shall be of the deadman type, which  
automatically returns to the off or neutral position if the operator removes his or her  
hands from the control.  
(12) The splitting control for ram-type splitters shall move in the same direction as  
the splitting action.  
(13) The operating controls of a log splitter shall be located so the operator can  
operate the log splitter without being exposed to unexpected contact with a log or  
moving machinery.  
History: 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15181 Power takeoff.  
Rule 5181. (1) Power takeoff-driven equipment shall be guarded to prevent  
employee contact with the positively driven, rotating member of the power-driven  
system. Where power takeoff-driven equipment is of a design requiring the removal  
of the master shield, the attaching equipment shall include protection from the portion  
of the tractor power takeoff shaft that protrudes from the tractor.  
(2) A tractor having a power takeoff shaft shall be equipped with a master  
shield on the power takeoff shaft, except as permitted in subrule (1) of this rule. The  
shield shall be strong enough to prevent permanent deformation when a 250-pound  
operator mounts or dismounts the tractor and uses the shield as a step.  
History: 1989 AACS.  
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