DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL  
445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.10001 Scope.  
Rule 1. This standard sets forth general rules for the employer and the employee in,  
around and about a place of employment, except that where a specific rule is set forth in  
another standard, the general rule is preempted.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10002 Referenced standard.  
Rule 2. The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MIOSHA)  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 27 “Woodworking Machinery,”  
R 408.12701 to R 408.12799, is referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of this standard  
may be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and  
Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street,  
P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at website:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, as of the  
time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
History: 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10003 Definitions; E to M.  
Rule 3. (1) "Equivalent" means an alternate design or feature that provides an equal or  
greater degree of safety.  
(2) "Flammable" means to ignite easily, burn intensely, or to have a rapid rate of flame  
spread.  
(3) "Hazard" means an unsafe condition or procedure that could result in an injury.  
(4) "Machine" means a powered instrument or device that transmits force or motion in a  
predetermined manner. It may be fixed in place or transportable, but is not hand-held.  
History: 1979 AC; 1993 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
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R 408.10004 Definitions; P.  
Rule 4. (1) "Pinch point" means a point at which it is possible to be caught between the  
moving parts of a machine, or between the moving and stationary parts of a machine or  
between material and any part of a machine.  
(2) "Point of operation" means the point on a machine where work is performed.  
(3) "Power failure" means the loss of power from the energy source.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10005 Definitions; S.  
Rule 5. (1) "Shall" means mandatory.  
(2) "Should" means recommended.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10011 Employer responsibilities.  
Rule 11. An employer shall comply with all of the following:  
(a) Provide training to each newly assigned employee regarding the operating  
procedures, hazards, and safeguards of the job.  
(b) Not knowingly authorize a process, machine, or equipment to be used that does not  
meet applicable state safety standards.  
(c) Provide a chain, bracket, or other device and assure its use at all times to restrain  
compressed gas cylinders from falling.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10012 Employee responsibilities.  
Rule 12. An employee shall comply with all of the following:  
(a) Not operate a machine or equipment until trained in the operating procedures,  
hazards, and safeguards and has been assigned to do so by the employer.  
(b) Report to the supervisor any recognized hazard.  
(c) Use required personal protective equipment or devices as prescribed in this  
standard or a MIOSHA specific standard.  
(d) Not remove a guard or other safety device except for authorized servicing  
purposes. The guard or other safety device shall be replaced or equivalent guarding  
provided before the machine or equipment is returned to normal operation.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10013 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 13. (1) The personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and  
construction to perform the intended function.  
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(2) Personal protective equipment required by applicable MIOSHA standards and  
employee owned equipment shall be maintained by an established program to assure the  
continuing adequacy, condition, and sanitation of the equipment.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10015 Housekeeping.  
Rule 15. (1) Materials, including scrap and debris, shall be piled, stacked, or placed  
in a container in a manner that does not create a hazard to an employee.  
(2) Where vegetation is a hazard, an employee shall be protected by vegetation  
control or other means of protection, such as, but not limited to, a barrier, personal  
protective equipment, or medication.  
(3) A storage area shall be kept free from accumulations of materials that constitute  
a hazard from fire, explosion, or pest harborage.  
History: 1979 AC; 1981 AACS; 1988 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10016 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2018 MR 2, Eff. Feb. 2, 2018.  
R 408.10017 Lubrication.  
Rule 17. (1) Lubrication shall be accomplished by 1 of the following:  
(a) Manually, when the machine can be shut off and locked out.  
(b) Automatic pressure or gravity feed system.  
(c) Extension pipe or tube leading to an area outside of guards or away from any  
hazard.  
(d) A means of lubrication that would provide equal or greater protection than  
subdivision (a), (b), or (c) of this rule, for the employee.  
(2) Where access through a guard is provided, and the opening exceeds the table 2  
specifications, the opening shall be provided with a hinged or sliding self-closing cover.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10018 Color coding .  
Rule 18. (1) A safety can shall be red in color .  
(2) A stop bar, stop button, electrical switch, or other mechanical device for the  
emergency stopping of machinery, excluding cables, shall be red in color .  
(3) Yellow shall be the basic color for designating caution and for marking  
physical hazards. Solid yellow, yellow and black stripes, or yellow with a suitable  
contrasting background may be used interchangeably .  
History: 1981 AACS.  
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R 408.10021 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10022 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10026 De-railers, bumper blocks, and clearance signs.  
Rule 26.(1) Where rolling railroad cars on a spur track could make contact with a  
railcar being loaded or unloaded, repaired or serviced, or enter a building, work or traffic  
area, de-railers, bumper blocks, a blue flag or blue light, or other equivalent protection  
shall be used .  
(2) A visible "Close Clearance" sign shall be used to indicate close clearance  
between a railcar and an adjacent fixed object if the fixed object is located less than 8 1/2  
feet from the center of a straight track and 9 feet from the center of a curved track.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10031 Machine installations.  
Rule 31. (1) A machine installed on a bench, table, or stand shall be designed or  
secured to prevent unintentional movement or tipping.  
(2) A stationary machine shall be anchored or provided with anti-slip pads to  
prevent unintentional movement.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10032 Rescinded .  
History: 1979 AC; 1993 AACS.  
R 408.10033 Machine controls .  
Rule 33. (1) Powered electrical equipment shall have an on-off switch .  
(2) When unexpected motion would cause injury, an actuating machine control,  
except for an emergency device for a powered fixed or transportable machine,  
shall be guarded or located to prevent accidental actuation .  
(3) Unless its function is self-evident, each operating control device shall be  
identified as to its function .  
(4) A powered machine that is attended by more than 1 employee shall be equipped  
with an actuation device for each employee who is exposed to a point of operation  
hazard. The machine shall activate only after concurrent use of all actuation devices .  
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(5) When unexpected motion would cause injury, precautions shall be taken to  
prevent a machine from automatically restarting upon the restoration of power after a  
power failure .  
(6) Where a machine work station is remotely located from the machine controls,  
either a red emergency stop device shall be provided at the machine work station if a  
hazard exists that could cause an injury or the actuation of the controls shall require  
continuous depression during the hazardous portion of the machine cycle .  
(7) Equipment that is operated in series so that one piece of equipment  
automatically supplies another shall be interlocked so that when any equipment in the  
series is stopped for any reason, the initial stopping causes the upstream equipment to  
stop if continued operation would create a hazard. Reactivation shall require a separate  
positive action by the employee who initiated the stop .  
History: 1979 AC; 1993 AACS.  
R 408.10034 Machine guards and devices.  
Rule 34. (1) Two hand-control devices shall be the anti-tie down type and located in  
a manner to prevent bridging. Operation shall require manual activation of both controls  
until a point is reached in the cycle where the operator cannot remove his or her hands  
and place them within a pinch point. If repeating would cause an injury, an anti-repeat  
device shall be incorporated into the control system.  
(2) Guards shall be secured to the machine, if possible, or to other fixed objects. The  
guard shall not create a hazard in itself.  
(3) A point of operation guard or device shall be as prescribed in a specific standard,  
or, in the absence of a specific standard, shall be designed and constructed, when  
required, to prevent the machine operator exposed to the hazard from having any part of  
his or her body in the hazardous area during the operating cycle. A guard or device for  
the point of operation of a nonproduction arbor press or straightening press is not  
required if the machine is equipped with a hand control that is designed to stop the ram  
action or return the ram to the up position when released .  
(4) Hand tools shall not be substituted for the required guarding or point of operation  
devices, except that a hand tool may be used as prescribed in subrule (5) of this rule for a  
press brake operation. Where hand tools are used for placing into, and removing material  
from, a point of operation, they shall be designed so that the operator is not required to  
place a hand within the point of operation.  
(5) A bending operation on a press brake involving less than 25 pieces of 1 specific  
bend, if not guarded, shall require the use of a hand tool when the operator must hold the  
work piece within 4 inches of the point of operation, and a conspicuous sign shall be  
posted on the machine stating "Hand tools shall be used to hold stock."  
(6) A revolving barrel, container, or drum exposed to contact shall be guarded by a  
standard barrier, an enclosure, or equivalent protection where a hazard exists. Access  
through a standard barrier or enclosure shall be by a gate equipped with an interlock,  
which shall disconnect the power when the gate is opened and require manual  
re-actuation of a start button. A constant pressure jog control that bypasses the interlock  
may be used to aid loading and unloading.  
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(7) Blades of a fan, located within 7 feet of a floor or working level and used for  
ventilation or cooling of an employee, shall be guarded with a firmly affixed or secured  
guard. Any opening in the guard shall have not more than 1 of its dimensions more than 1  
inch and the distance to the blade shall not be less than that prescribed in Table 1.  
(8) A fan used in process cooling whose blade is less than 7 feet above the floor or  
working level shall meet the distance requirements of Table 2. Where the openings are  
larger than those shown in Table 2, the distance from the guard to the blade shall prevent  
any part of the employee's body from making contact with the blade.  
(9) When an employee is exposed to a hazard created by a pinch point other than  
point of operation, the hazard shall be guarded or the employee otherwise protected.  
(10) A band or circular saw shall be guarded as prescribed in General Industry  
Safety and Health Standard Part 27 “Woodworking Machinery,” as referenced in  
R 408.10002.  
(11) An extractor, parts washer, or tumbler, manually controlled and equipped with  
an inside revolving cylinder, shall be equipped with a cover or door interlocked in such a  
manner as to prevent opening the door when the inside cylinder is in motion, and to  
prevent power operation of the inside cylinder when the cover or door is open. An inch  
control or constant pressure control which bypasses the interlock may be used to aid  
loading and unloading.  
(12) An employee shall not place his or her body beneath equipment, such as  
vehicles, machines, or materials, supported only by a jack, overhead hoist, chain fall, or  
any other temporary single supporting means, unless safety stands, blocks or other  
support system capable of supporting the total imposed weight is used to protect the  
employee in case of failure of the supporting system.  
TABLE 1  
Minimum distance from guard to  
Smallest dimension in guard (inches):  
blade:  
Greater than 0 up to 1/4 inclusive  
Greater than 1/4 up to 3/8 inclusive  
Greater than 3/8 up to 1/2 inclusive  
Greater than 1/2 up to 3/4 inclusive  
Greater than 3/4 up to 1 inclusive  
1/2 inch  
1 1/2 inches  
2 1/2 inches  
4 inches  
6 times the smallest dimension  
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TABLE 2  
Distance of opening from point of  
operation hazard (inches)  
Maximum width opening (inches)  
1/2 to 1 1/2  
1/4  
1 1/2 to 2 1/2  
2 1/2 to 3 1/2  
3 1/2 to 5 1/2  
5 1/2 to 6 1/2  
6 1/2 to 7 1/2  
7 1/2 to 12 1/2  
12 1/2 to 15 1/2  
15 1/2 to 17 1/2  
17 1/2 to 31 1/2  
3/8  
1/2  
5/8  
3/4  
7/8  
1 1/4  
1 1/2  
1 7/8  
2 1/8  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.10036 Air under pressure.  
Rule 36. (1) Air pressure at the discharge end of a portable air blow gun or portable  
air hose shall be less than 30 pounds per square inch gauge when dead-ended.  
(2) When air under pressure is used to remove chips and dust, a chip guard, such as  
a fixed or removable shield, safely located, shall be provided to protect an employee in an  
adjacent area.  
(3) Air under pressure, used in a manner which could cause injury, shall not be used  
for cleaning clothes while being worn or directly applied to any part of the body.  
(4) Air under pressure shall not be used to move flammable dust in an area  
containing open flames or spark producing equipment.  
(5) Air under pressure shall not be used to remove toxic dusts in an employee  
environment.  
(6) An employee shall be protected by guards or location when pressure tests are  
being performed on materials or equipment where rupture or failure would create a  
hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
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R 408.10037 Cleaning of containers .  
Rule 37. An employer shall not distribute, make available, furnish, or supply a  
container that is known to have contained a hazardous substance unless the container  
has been thoroughly cleaned to remove all traces of any hazardous substance, except  
where the container is refilled with the same substance .  
History: 1993 AACS.  
R 408.10051 Rescinded .  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.10098 Rescinded.  
History: 1981 AACS; 1988 AACS; 1993 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
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