DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL  
445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
PART 18. OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES  
R 408.11801 Scope.  
Rule 1801. (1) This standard covers the equipment, installation, maintenance, and  
operation of top running overhead and gantry single and multiple girder cranes in, about,  
and around places of employment in order to safeguard employees.  
(2) This standard does not apply to any of the following:  
(a) Monorails.  
(b) Railway or truck cranes.  
(c) Mine hoists.  
(d) Conveyors.  
(e) Shovels.  
(f) Drag-line excavators.  
(g) Equipment used on construction jobs.  
(h) Systems used to transport people.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11803 Definitions; B to D.  
Rule 1803. (1) "Brake" means a device used for retarding or stopping motion by  
friction or power means.  
(2) "Bridge" means that part of a crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties,  
footwalks, and the driving mechanism which carries the trolley or trolleys.  
(3) "Bumper" means an energy-absorbing device for reducing impact when a  
moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel, or when 2 moving  
cranes or trolley come in contact.  
(4) "Cab" means an operator compartment located on a crane bridge or trolley.  
(5) "Cab operated crane" means a crane controlled by an operator in  
located on the bridge or trolley.  
a cab  
(6) "Catwalk" means a walkway with handrail and toeboards which are  
attached to the bridge or trolley, or both, for access purposes.  
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(7) "Competent person" means a person who has the necessary experience of the  
crane and equipment used in the lifting operation to carry out the function  
satisfactorily, who is capable of identifying an existing or potential hazard in  
surroundings, or under working conditions, that are hazardous or dangerous to an  
employee, and who has the authority and knowledge to take prompt corrective  
measures to eliminate the hazards.  
(8) "Collector shoe" means a contacting device for  
runway or bridge conductors.  
collecting  
current from  
(9) "Conductors, bridge" means the electrical conductors located along the bridge  
structure of a crane to provide power to the trolley.  
(10) "Conductors, runway" means the electrical conductors located along a crane  
runway to provide power to the crane.  
(11) "Controller" means a device or group of devices that serves to govern, in a  
predetermined manner, the power delivered directly to the apparatus to which it is  
connected.  
(12) "Crane" means a top running overhead or gantry crane.  
(13) "Designated" means selected or assigned by the employer  
employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.  
or the  
(14) "Drag brake" means a brake that provides retarding force without  
external control.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11804 Definitions; F to M.  
Rule 1804. (1) "Floor-operated crane" means a top running overhead crane that is  
controlled by an operator on a floor or independent platform.  
(2) "Footwalk" means a walkway which has a handrail and which is attached to the  
bridge or trolley for access purposes.  
(3) "Frequent inspection" means a visual examination by the operator or other  
designated personnel, with written records required.  
(4) "Gantry crane" means a crane similar to an overhead crane, except that the  
bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported by 1 or more legs running  
on a fixed rail or other runway.  
(5) "Hoist" means a system of power-driven drums, gears, cables, chains, or  
hydraulic cylinders capable of lifting and lowering a load.  
(6) "Hooker" means an employee who by using predetermined lift points  
attaches the load to the hook, in hoisting or setting the load or both.  
(7) "Hot metal crane" means a crane that transports molten metal.  
(8) "Limit switch" means a switch that is operated by some part or motion of a  
power-driven machine or equipment to alter the electric current associated with the  
machine or equipment.  
(9) "Load" means the total superimposed weight on a load block or hook.  
(10) "Load block" means the assembly of hook and shackle, swivel bearing,  
sheaves, pins, and frame, suspended by the hoisting ropes or chain.  
(11) "Magnet" means an electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook that  
picks up the load magnetically.  
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(12) "Main switch" means a switch on a crane controlling the entire power  
supply to the crane, except that a magnet and convenience outlet circuit may bypass  
the main switch.  
(13) "Modified" means a change in design or rating.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11805 Definitions; O to R.  
Rule 1805. (1) "Overhead crane" means a top running crane that has a movable  
bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism for lifting and lowering,  
moving horizontally and traveling on an overhead fixed runway.  
(2) "Periodic inspection" means the inspection of the equipment in place by a  
designated person, making written records of conditions.  
(3) "Power-operated crane" means a crane that has its mechanism driven by  
electric, air, hydraulic, or internal combustion means.  
(4) "Preformed" means to permanently shape wire rope before fabrication into  
helical form.  
(5) "Pulpit" means an operator compartment for a crane located  
position remote from the crane.  
at  
a fixed  
(6) "Qualified person" means a person who, through attainment of a  
recognized degree or certificate of professional standing or by extensive knowledge,  
training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve  
problems relating to the subject matter and work.  
(7) "Rail stop" means a device attached to a rail to stop the movement of a crane  
beyond a fixed point.  
(8) "Rated load" means the maximum load for which a crane or individual hoist is  
designed and built by the manufacturer and shown on the equipment nameplate  
or nameplates.  
(9) "Remote-operated crane" means a crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit  
or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control.  
(10) "Rigger" means an employee who prepares heavy equipment or loads of  
materials for lifting.  
(11) "Rope" means wire rope, unless otherwise specified.  
(12) "Running sheave" means a sheave that rotates as the load block is raised or  
lowered.  
(13) "Runway" means an assembly of rails, beams, girders,  
framework on which a crane or trolley travels.  
brackets, and  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11806 Definitions; S to W.  
Rule 1806. (1) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of  
material or object to the actual load or stress when in use.  
(2) "Seizing" means to bind the end of a wire rope with a soft annealed iron wire.  
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(3) "Side pull" means to pull a load with a hoist, chain or cable other than  
vertically.  
(4) "Stop device" means a device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge.  
It is normally attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy-  
absorbing ability.  
(5) "Storage gantry crane" means a gantry type crane of long span usually  
used for bulk storage of materials. The bridge girders are supported on 1 or more legs. It  
may have 1 or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends.  
(6) "Swaged socket" means a fitting into which wire rope is  
attached by cold forming.  
inserted and  
(7) "Switch" means a device for making, breaking, or for  
connections in an electric circuit.  
changing the  
(8) "Trolley" means a unit that travels on the bridge rails and carries the hoisting  
mechanism.  
(9) "Trolley travel" means the trolley movement at right angles to the crane  
runway.  
(10) "Truck" means the unit consisting of a frame, wheels, bearing, and axles that  
supports the bridge girders or trolleys.  
(11) "Wall crane" means a crane which has a jib with or without trolley and which  
is supported from a sidewall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type and  
operates on a runway attached to the sidewall or columns.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11807 Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 1807. (1) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and  
are available from HIS Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado, 80112,  
USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at web-site:  
www.global.ihs.com, at a cost as of the time of adoption of these rules, as stated in this  
subrule:  
(a) American National Standard Institute ANSI/ASME B30.2, “Overhead and  
Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley  
Hoist)," Standard, 1996 edition. Cost: $60.00.  
(b) ANSI/ASME B30.2.0, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes," Standard, 1967 edition.  
Cost: $60.00.  
(c) ANSI/ASME B30.17, “Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge,  
Single Girder, Underhung Hoist),” Standard, 1998 edition. Cost: $60.00.  
(2) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the  
Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section,  
530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(3) Copies of the standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the  
publisher or may be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs,  
MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643,  
Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus $20.00 for shipping  
and handling.  
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(4) The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration  
(MIOSHA) Standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory services section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at website:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time of  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) Construction Safety Standard Part 10 “Cranes and Derricks,” R 408.41001 to  
R 408.41099.  
(b) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(c) General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards for Power Transmission,”  
R 408.10701 to R 408.10765.  
(d) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective  
Equipment,” R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
(e) General Industry Safety Standard Part 39 “Design Safety Standards for Electrical  
Systems,” R 408.13901 to R 408.13905.  
(f) General Industry Safety Standard Part 49 “Slings,” R 408.14901 to R 408.14965.  
(g) General Industry Safety Standard Part 85 “The Control of Hazardous Energy  
Sources, (Lockout/Tagout),” R 408.18501 to R 408.18599.  
History: 2002 AACS; 2005 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11808 Employer responsibilities.  
Rule 1808. (1) An employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and  
limitations applicable to the operation of cranes. If a manufacturer's specifications are not  
available, then the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the  
determination of a qualified engineer who is competent in the field of equipment  
limitations, and the determination shall be appropriately documented and recorded.  
Attachments that are used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope  
recommended by the manufacturer.  
(2) An employer shall designate a qualified person to perform all inspections of  
cranes as required by this standard.  
(3) An employer shall limit the use of a crane to the following entities:  
(a) An employee who has been trained and qualified to operate the type of crane to  
which he or she is assigned.  
(b) A learner who is under the direct supervision of a designated operator.  
(c) Designated maintenance personnel while performing their duties.  
(4) An employer shall maintain a crane and its accessories in a condition that will  
not endanger an operator or other employees.  
(5) The original safety factor of the equipment shall not be reduced if modifications  
or changes are made to the equipment. Modifications or changes shall be certified by a  
qualified registered engineer. The capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates,  
tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly to reflect any modifications or changes.  
(6) An employer shall comply with all other applicable requirements of this  
standard.  
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(7) The manual provided by the crane manufacturer shall be readily accessible for  
the crane operator's reference at the work site.  
History: 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND EQUIPMENT  
R 408.11821 Certification; modification; guards; adoption of standards by  
reference.  
Rule 1821. (1) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with  
single or multiple girders and a top running trolley hoist, erected or modified after June  
24, 1973 and before April 9, 2002, shall be certified by a crane manufacturer or an  
engineer knowledgeable in crane construction, that the new construction or installation,  
or modification conforms to the ANSI/ASME B30.2.0 "Overhead and Gantry Cranes,"  
Standard, 1967 edition, as adopted in R 408.11807.  
(2) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with single or  
multiple girders and a top running trolley hoist, erected or modified after April 9, 2002,  
shall be certified by a crane manufacturer or an engineer knowledgeable in crane  
construction, that the new construction or installation, or modification conforms to the  
ANSI/ASME B30.2 "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or  
Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)," Standard, 1996 edition, as adopted in  
R 408.11807.  
(3) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with a single  
girder and an underhung hoist, erected or modified after August 31, 1971 and before  
April 9, 2002, shall be certified by a crane manufacturer or an engineer knowledgeable in  
crane construction, that the new construction, installation, or modification conforms to  
the ANSI/ASME B30.2.0 "Overhead and Gantry Cranes," 1967 edition, as adopted in  
R 408.11807.  
(4) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with a single  
girder and an underhung hoist, erected or modified after April 9, 2002, shall be certified  
by a crane manufacturer or an engineer knowledgeable in crane construction, that the new  
construction, installation, or modification conforms to the ANSI/ASME B30.17  
"Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist)"  
Standard, 1998 edition, as adopted in R 408.11807.  
(5) Gears, couplings and other means of power transmission, except shafts, where  
exposed to contact, shall be guarded as prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard  
Part 7 "Guards for Power Transmission," as referenced in R 408.11807.  
(6) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with single or  
multiple girders and a top running trolley hoist may be modified or rerated if the  
modifications and the supporting structure are checked thoroughly by a qualified  
engineer or the equipment manufacturer and conform to the ANSI/ASME B30.2  
"Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top  
Running Trolley Hoist)," Standard, 1996 edition, as adopted in R 408.11807.  
(7) A top running or gantry crane consisting of a top running bridge with a single  
girder and an underhung hoist may be modified or rerated if the modifications and the  
Page 6  
supporting structure are checked thoroughly by a qualified engineer or the equipment  
manufacturer and conform to the ANSI/ASME B30.17 "Overhead and Gantry Cranes  
(Top Running Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist)" Standard, 1998 edition, as  
adopted in R 408.11807.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2005 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11822 Marking rated capacity; classifications; clearances.  
Rule 1822. (1) The rated capacity of a crane shall be legibly marked on each  
side of the crane. Markings shall be legible from the ground or floor.  
Each load block of the hoisting units of the crane shall be legibly marked with its  
individual rated capacity.  
(2) Each crane designed and manufactured after January 1, 1971 shall have a  
service class rating as prescribed in "CMAA #70--Specifications for Top Running  
Bridge and Gantry Type Multiple Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes,"  
1970 edition, as shown in Appendix B. Additionally the service class rating shall be  
legibly marked on each crane.  
(3) Clearance from obstructions shall be a minimum of 3 inches overhead and 2  
inches laterally between the crane and any obstruction.  
(4) Runways of parallel cranes that do not have an intervening wall or structure  
shall have adequate clearance between the 2 bridges.  
(5) The cab of a crane shall be located to afford a minimum of 3 inches  
clearance from all fixed structures within its area of possible movement.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2005 AACS.  
R 408.11823 Safety factor for hoisting cables.  
Rule 1823. The designed safety factor for the hoisting cable is as follows:  
(a) A hot metal crane shall be not less than 8.  
(b) Any other crane shall be not less than 5.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11824 Wire rope.  
Rule 1824. (1) A wire rope used on a crane shall be repaired or replaced in any of  
the following circumstances:  
(a) One third or more of the original diameter of the outside individual wires is  
worn.  
(b) There is kinking, crushing, bird-caging, or any other damage that results in  
distortion of the running portion of the wire rope structure.  
(c) The wire rope shows heat or corrosive damage.  
(d) In running ropes, there are 6 randomly distributed broken wires in 1 lay or 3  
broken wires on 1 strand in 1 lay. In rotation-resistant ropes, 2 randomly distributed  
Page 7  
broken wires in 6 rope diameters or 4 randomly distributed broken wires in 30 rope  
diameters.  
(e) There are reductions from nominal diameter of more than the following:  
(i) One sixty-fourth of an inch for a diameter to and including 5/16 of an inch.  
(ii) One thirty-second of an inch for a diameter 3/8 of an inch to and including 1/2 of  
an inch.  
(iii) Three sixty-fourths of an inch for a diameter 9/16 of an inch to and including  
3/4 of an inch.  
(iv) One sixteenth of an inch for a diameter 7/8 of an inch to and including 1 1/8  
inches.  
(v) Three thirty-seconds of an inch for a diameter 1 1/4 inches to and including 1 1/2  
inches.  
(f) In standing ropes, there are more than 2 broken wires in 1 lay in sections beyond  
end connections or more than 1 broken wire at an end connection.  
(2) Wire rope discarded from a crane under subrule (1) of this rule shall not be used  
for any other load-carrying service.  
(3) Wire rope for a crane bent to form an eye shall be equipped with a metal thimble.  
(4) A wire rope end fitting shall be a clamp, swage, or a zinc or equivalent poured  
socket. Before cutting wire rope, seizings shall be placed as follows:  
(a) One seizing on each side of the cut on preformed wire rope;  
(b) Two seizings on each side of 7/8 inch size or smaller nonpreformed wire rope.  
(c) Three seizings on each side of 1 inch or larger size nonpreformed wire rope.  
(5) Wire rope that has an independent wire rope core shall be used on all molten  
metal applications and in an area where the environmental atmosphere will cause  
deterioration of a hemp center.  
(6) Wire rope shall be stored in a manner to prevent damage or deterioration.  
(7) The unreeling or uncoiling of wire rope shall be done as recommended by the  
rope manufacturer and with care to avoid kinking or inducing a twist.  
(8) Rope clips attached with u-bolts shall have the u-bolts on the dead or short end  
of the rope. Spacing and number of all types of clips shall be in accordance with the clip  
manufacturer's recommendation. Clips shall be drop-forged steel in all sizes  
manufactured commercially. When a newly installed rope has been in operation for an  
hour, all nuts on the clip bolts shall be retightened. See Appendix A.  
(9) Replacement rope shall meet or exceed the original specifications set forth by the  
crane manufacturer.  
(10) If a load is supported by more than 1 part of rope, then the tension in the parts  
shall be equalized.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11825 Hooks; load blocks.  
Rule 1825. (1) A crane hook shall be discarded if either of the following  
provisions applies:  
(a) The throat opening is more than 15% greater than the manufactured size.  
(b) The hook has more than a 10-degree twist from a vertical center line drawn  
through the hook socket.  
Page 8  
(2) A hook shall be equipped with a latch, unless the application makes the use of  
a latch impractical as determined by a qualified person. When required, a latch shall  
be provided to bridge the throat opening of the hook for the purpose of retaining slings,  
chains, or other equipment, under slack conditions.  
(3) Load blocks shall be of the enclosed type and shall be guarded against rope  
jamming during normal operations.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11826 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11827 Sheaves.  
Rule 1827. (1) Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free from defects that could  
cause rope damage.  
(2) Sheaves carrying ropes that can be momentarily unloaded shall be provided  
with close fitting guards or other suitable devices to guide  
groove when the load is applied again.  
the rope back into the  
(3) Sheaves in the bottom block shall be equipped with close fitting guards that  
will prevent ropes from becoming fouled when the block is lying on the ground with  
ropes loose.  
(4) Pockets and flanges of sheaves used with hoist chains shall be of  
dimensions that the chain does not catch or bind during operation.  
(5) All running sheaves shall  
be  
equipped  
with  
means  
for  
lubrication.Permanently lubricated, sealed, or shielded bearings meet this requirement  
History: 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11831 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11832 Trolley stops.  
Rule 1832. (1) Stops shall be provided at the limits of travel of the trolley.  
(2) The stops shall be fastened to resist the forces applied when contacted.  
(3) A stop engaging the tread of the wheel shall be of a height not less than that of  
the wheel radius. A stop which engages other parts of the crane is preferable.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11833 Bridge bumpers; trolley bumpers; rail sweeps.  
Page 9  
Rule 1833. (1) A crane shall be provided with bumpers or other automatic  
means providing equivalent effect, unless the crane travels at a slow rate of speed and  
has a faster deceleration rate due to the use of sleeve bearings, is not operated near  
the ends of bridge and trolley travel, is restricted to a limited distance by the nature of  
the crane operation and there is no hazard of striking any object in the limited  
distance, or is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers shall be capable of  
stopping the crane, not including the lifted load, at an average rate of deceleration of  
not more than 3 feet/s/s (per second, per second) when traveling in either direction  
at 20% of the rated load speed. Bumpers shall meet both of the following  
requirements:  
(a) A bumper shall have sufficient energy-absorbing capacity to stop the crane  
when traveling at a speed of not less than 40% of rated load speed.  
(b) A bumper shall be mounted so that there is no direct shear on bolts.  
(2) Bumpers shall be designed and installed to minimize parts falling from the  
crane in case of breakage.  
(3) A trolley shall be provided with bumpers or other automatic means of  
equivalent effect, unless the trolley travels at a slow rate of speed, is not operated near  
the ends of bridge and trolley travel, is restricted to a limited distance of the runway  
and there is no hazard of striking any object in the limited distance, or is used in  
similar operating conditions. The bumpers shall be capable of stopping the trolley,  
not including the lifted load, at an average rate of deceleration of not more than 4.7  
feet/s/s (per second, per second) when traveling in either direction at 1/3 of the  
rated load speed. Trolley bumpers shall meet both of the following requirements:  
(a) When more than 1 trolley is operated on the same bridge, each shall be  
equipped with bumpers or equivalent on their adjacent ends.  
(b) Bumpers or equivalent shall be designed and installed to  
minimize parts  
falling from the trolley in case of broken or loosened mounting connections.  
(4) Bridge trucks shall be equipped with rail sweeps that extend below the top of  
the rail and project in front of the truck wheels.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11835 Ladders; foot-walks; stairways; escape devices.  
Rule 1835. (1) Access to crane. Access to the car or bridge walkway shall be by a  
conveniently placed fixed ladder, stairs, or platform requiring no step over any gap  
exceeding 12 inches (30 cm). Fixed ladders shall comply with General Industry Safety  
and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11807.  
(2) A foot-walk or a cat-walk for or on a crane shall have a guardrail system as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11807. A foot-walk shall be of rigid construction and  
designed to sustain a distributed load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot, and shall  
have an anti-slip surface.  
(3) An employer shall ensure that a safe method of escape is provided in case of fire  
or other emergency situation on a cab-operated crane.  
(4) A gantry crane shall have fixed ladders or stairways extending from the ground  
to the foot-walk or cab platform.  
Page 10  
(5) Toeboards and handrails for foot-walks. Toeboards and handrails shall comply  
with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,”  
as referenced in R 408.11807.  
(6) Ladders shall be permanently and securely fastened in place and constructed in  
compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11807.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11837 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11841 Brakes and restraints.  
Rule 1841. (1) An overhead or gantry crane bridge which is powered shall be  
equipped with an operable brake, non-coasting mechanical drive, or other braking  
means. The brake or drive shall be capable of stopping the bridge within a distance, in  
feet, equal to 10% of the full load speed in feet per minute when traveling at full speed  
with full load.  
(2) A trolley of a crane shall meet the requirements of subrule (1) of this rule.  
(3) A crane that is being used out-of-doors shall have a positive mechanical  
restraint, such as, but not limited to, an automatic rail clamp, to secure the crane against  
wind movement while parked. If clamps act on the rail heads, beads or weld flash on  
the rail heads shall be ground off. A positive mechanical restraint shall be utilized when  
the crane is parked in an area where the potential exposure to wind is prevalent.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11843 Controls.  
Rule 1843. (1) A pendant, radio, cab, pulpit control station, and a controller in a cab  
operated crane shall be permanently identified by function and direction. Control boxes  
shall be constructed to prevent electrical shock.  
(2) Rope controls for a floor-operated crane shall be equipped with an arrow  
attached to the rope showing the direction of travel when the rope is pulled.  
(3) A pendant, radio, cab, or pulpit control station shall be equipped with a positive  
stop device, colored red, to disconnect all motors.  
(4) A crane shall be equipped with a main switch which can be locked out. An  
employer shall establish a written lockout procedure which shall be used in connection  
with R 408.11872 and R 408.11875. Lockout shall conform to the requirements  
prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 85 “The Control of Hazardous  
Energy Sources, (Lockout/Tagout),” as referenced in R 408.11807.  
(5) A controller on a rope, pendant, or radio-controlled crane, when released from  
the "on" position, shall automatically return to the "off" position.  
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(6) A transmitter for a radio-controlled crane shall be stored in a locked cabinet or in  
a supervised storage area when not in use.  
(7) All cranes shall have an operable over-travel limit switch in the hoisting  
direction. The switch shall be located so that it is tripped under all conditions to prevent  
contact of the hook or block with the hoist.  
(8) A crane that is not equipped with spring return controllers or momentary contact  
push buttons shall have a device which will disconnect all motors from the line if power  
fails and which will not permit restarting until the controller handle is brought to the off  
position or a reset switch or button is operated.  
(9) The control circuit voltage shall not be more than 600 volts for A.C. or D.C.  
current.  
(10) The voltage at pendant push-buttons shall not be more than 150 volts for A.C.  
and 300 volts for D.C.  
(11) If multiple conductor cable is used with a suspended push-button station, then  
the station shall be supported in a manner that will protect the electrical conductors  
against strain.  
(12) Cab-operated cranes shall have lever-operated manual controllers and master  
switches that have a spring-return arrangement, off-point detent, or off-point latch. The  
controller operating handle shall be located within reach of the operator and, as far as  
practicable, the movement of each controller handle shall be in the same general  
directions of the resultant movements of the load.  
(13) Equipment and wiring shall be as prescribed in General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 39 “Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems,” as referenced in  
R 408.11807.  
(14) The control for the bridge and trolley travel shall be located so that the operator  
can face the direction of travel.  
(15) Push buttons in pendant stations shall return to the above position when  
released by the operator.  
(16) Automatic cranes shall be designed so that all motions will failsafe if any  
malfunction of operation occurs.  
(17) A remote-operated crane shall function so that if the control signal for any  
crane motion becomes ineffective, the crane motion shall stop.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11844 Equipment.  
Rule 1844. (1) Electrical equipment shall be located or enclosed so that live parts are  
not exposed to accidental contact under normal operating conditions.  
(2) Electric equipment shall be protected from dirt, grease, oil, and moisture.  
(3) Guards for live parts shall be substantial and located so that they cannot be  
accidentally deformed to make contact with live parts.  
(4) Enclosures for resistors shall have openings to provide adequate ventilation and  
shall be installed to prevent the accumulation of combustible matter too near to hot parts.  
Resistor units shall be supported to be free as possible from vibration.  
(5) The power supply to the runway conductors shall be controlled by a switch or  
circuit breaker that is located on a fixed structure, is accessible from the floor, and is  
Page 12  
capable of being locked in the open position. A switch or circuit breaker that is of the  
enclosed type and is capable of being locked in the open position shall be provided in the  
leads from the runway conductors on a cab-operated crane. A means of opening the  
switch or circuit shall be located within reach of the operator. A switch or circuit breaker  
that is of the enclosed type and is capable of being locked in the open position shall be  
provided in the leads from the runway conductors on a floor-operated crane. The  
disconnect shall be mounted on the bridge or foot-walks near the runway conductors. One  
of the following types of floor-operated disconnects shall be provided:  
(a) Nonconductive rope attached to the main switch.  
(b) An under-voltage trip for the main circuit breaker operated by an emergency stop  
button in the pendant push button in the pendant pushbutton station.  
(c) A main line contactor operated by a switch or pushbutton in the pendant  
pushbutton station.  
(6) A crane using a lifting magnet shall have a separate magnet circuit switch that is  
of the enclosed type and is capable of being locked in the open position. Means for  
discharging the inductive load of the magnet shall be provided.  
(7) Runway conductors of the open type mounted on the crane runway beams or  
overhead shall be located or guarded so that persons entering or leaving the cab or crane  
foot-walk will not come into contact with them. On the effective date of this rule, open  
type conductors shall not be installed on cab-operated runway beams.  
(8) When a service receptacle for an extension lamp is provided in the cab or on the  
bridge of a cab-operated crane, it shall be a grounded 3-prong type permanent receptacle  
and shall not be more than 300 volts.  
History: 2002 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11845 Warning devices.  
Rule 1845. (1) A crane, shall be equipped with a warning device, such as a  
flashing light, horn, bell, or siren. An operator shall use  
starting and intermittently while traveling in an occupied area.  
a
warning device before  
(2) A wind-indicating device shall be provided on an outdoor storage gantry  
type crane and on an outdoor overhead crane. The device shall give a visual or audible  
alarm to the operator at a predetermined wind velocity to be determined by the  
employer in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation or design.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11847 Tool storage, housekeeping, and fire extinguishers.  
Rule 1847. (1) Tools and other necessary articles shall be stored in a secured  
container and not allowed to be loose, in or about a crane.  
(2) A class "C" or multipurpose fire extinguisher shall be  
provided and  
maintained accessible to the crane operator of a cab-operated crane a carbon  
tetrachloride extinguisher shall not be used.  
(3) An employer shall ensure that the crane operator is knowledgeable in the  
operation of the fire extinguishers.  
Page 13  
(4) Good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times. The crane operator  
shall keep the access area and the crane cab clear of all loose objects such as tools,  
bolts, boards, rags, or other materials.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
OPERATORS AND OPERATIONS  
R 408.11851 Qualifications.  
Rule 1851. An employer shall be able to demonstrate that an employee is trained and  
qualified to operate a crane prior to authorizing the employee to operate a crane.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2002 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11852 Training.  
Rule 1852. (1) An employer shall train a prospective operator before the employee's  
assignment as an operator of a crane. An employer shall ensure that a designated  
individual authorized by the employer to perform the training has the knowledge,  
training, and experience to train and to evaluate the competence of the prospective  
operator and to provide refresher training to an operator when it is required. Training  
shall include all of the following:  
(a) Capacities of equipment and attachments.  
(b) Purpose, use, and limitation of controls.  
(c) How to make daily checks.  
(d) The energizing sequences, including pneumatic, hydraulic, and electrical  
sequences.  
(e) Start-up and shutdown procedures.  
(f) Emergency shutdown procedures.  
(g) General operating procedures.  
(h) All basic signaling procedures, including hand, radio, or telephone signals,  
where required.  
(i) Knowledge of this standard and other applicable MIOSHA standards, and  
company rules and regulations.  
(j) Practice in operating the assigned equipment through the mechanical functions  
necessary to perform the required task.  
(k) Maximum rated capacity of the crane.  
(2) Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction, practical training,  
and testing of the operator's performance, as required in R 408.11853.  
(3) Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to an operator under any  
of the following conditions:  
(a) An operator has been observed to operate the crane in an unsafe manner.  
(b) An operator has been involved in an accident or a near-miss incident.  
(c) An operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not  
operating the crane safely.  
Page 14  
(d) An operator is assigned to a different type of crane.  
(e) A condition in the workplace changes that could affect safe operation of the  
crane.  
(4) Maintenance personnel, crane inspectors, and all other users of the crane shall be  
trained as required in subrule (1) of this rule.  
(5) A rigger shall be trained in all of the following:  
(a) The requirements of this standard.  
(b) Knowledge of General Industry Safety Standard Part 49 “Slings,” as referenced  
in R 408.11807.  
(c) Knowledge of General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33 “Personal  
Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.11807.  
(d) Maximum capacity of the crane.  
(e) Rigging procedures.  
(f) Company rules and regulations.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11853 Testing.  
Rule 1853. (1) An employer shall test the knowledge and ability of an  
employee before authorizing him or her to operate a crane. The test shall determine  
all of the following with respect to the employee:  
(a) Ability to operate the equipment through its functions necessary to perform  
the required jobs.  
(b) Knowledge of equipment.  
(c) Knowledge of daily checks and inspection requirements.  
(d) Knowledge of applicable MIOSHA standards and company  
regulations.  
(2) A performance test shall be given to determine that the  
rules and  
employee can  
operate the assigned crane or cranes through the functions necessary to perform the  
required task.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11854 Permits.  
Rule 1854. (1) An employer shall provide an employee with a permit to operate a  
crane only after the employee meets the requirements prescribed in R 408.11852, and  
R 408.11853.  
(2) An employee being trained is exempt from the permit requirement for a period of  
not more than 30 calendar days if the employee is under the supervision of an individual  
who is authorized by the employer and who has the knowledge, training, and experience  
to train operators and to evaluate their competence, and if the training period does not  
endanger the trainee or other employees.  
(3) A permit shall be carried by an operator or be available upon request of a  
department representative at all times during working hours.  
Page 15  
(4) A permit shall indicate the type of crane or cranes an operator has been trained  
on and is qualified to operate, as required in R 408.11852.  
(5) A permit to operate a crane is valid only with the employer who issued the  
permit, and the permit shall be issued for a period of not more than 3 years.  
(6) A permit shall contain all of the following information (see sample permit):  
(a) Firm name.  
(b) Operator's name.  
(c) Operator I.D. number, if any.  
(d) Name of issuing authority.  
(e) Type or types of crane authorized to operate.  
(f) Operator restrictions, if any. The permit shall state the nature of the restriction.  
(g) Date issued.  
(h) Date expiring.  
(7) A sample permit is set forth as follows:  
SAMPLE PERMIT  
CRANE OPERATOR PERMIT  
(Firm Name)  
Operator's Name  
Operator's Number  
Is Authorized To Operate:(Insert Type of Crane(s)  
Restrictions:(Explanation of Restrictions)  
Authorized)  
Date Issued: (Month Day Year)  
Date Expiring: (Month Day Year)  
By  
Issuing  
Authority:  
____________________________________________________  
Title  
History: 2002 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.11855 Limitations on use of cranes.  
Rule 1855. (1) An employer shall limit the use of a crane to the following  
persons:  
(a) An employee who is trained and is qualified to operate the type of crane to  
which he or she is assigned.  
(b) A learner under the direct supervision of a designated operator.  
(c) Designated maintenance personnel while performing their duties.  
Page 16  
(2) An employer shall establish and enforce a safe procedure, applicable to  
authorized employees, for boarding and leaving an overhead cab-operated crane.  
(3) An employer shall assure that an unauthorized employee does not enter a crane  
cab or pulpit.  
(4) An employer shall limit the use of a crane to its maximum rated capacity,  
except during rated load test as prescribed in R 408.11874.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS; 2005 AACS.  
R 408.11857 Reporting defects.  
Rule 1857. An operator shall report any defects in a crane to the supervisor.  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
R 408.11859 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 1859. (1) An operator and an employee directing a lift shall use the personal  
protective devices required in the area.  
(2) If the top of the load is not lifted to a height of more than 5 feet, then the load is  
not considered an overhead hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2002 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11861 General conduct of operators.  
Rule 1861. (1) An operator, when starting on duty shall comply with both of the  
following provisions:  
(a) Shall not close the main switch or emergency contactor until checking to see if  
anyone is on the crane and if a warning sign is on the crane, hook, or main switch.  
(b) Shall test all controls, limit switches, and brakes.  
When  
a load  
approaches the rated load, the operator shall test the hoisting brakes by raising the  
load a few inches and applying the brakes.  
(2) A hoisting limit switch on a crane or hoisting means shall not be used as an  
operating control unless the crane is also equipped with a backup limit switch.  
(3) A load shall not be lowered below a point where less than 2 full wraps of wire  
rope remain on the hoisting drum.  
(4) If there is doubt concerning the safety of a crane or hoisting means, then an  
operator shall stop the crane and report the condition creating the doubt to the  
supervisor.  
(5) In case of power failure, an operator shall place all controllers in the "off"  
position.  
(6) An operator leaving a crane unattended shall land any attached load, place  
the controllers in the "off" position, and open the main switch. Before closing a main  
switch, an operator shall make sure all controllers are in the "off" position. The main  
switch need not be opened on  
unattended for short periods.  
a pendant-controlled crane if the crane is left  
Page 17  
History: 1979 AC; 2002 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.11862 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Annual Administrative Code Supplement, 2002. The memorandum  
requesting the correction was published in Michigan Register, 2013 MR 21.  
R 408.11863 Signals.  
Rule 1863. An operator shall respond to signals only from the employee directing a  
lift. However, he shall obey at all times an emergency stop signal from any employee.  
The signals given an operator shall conform to Table 1. When 2 or more cranes are used  
to lift a load, a designated employee shall give all signals.  
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