DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY STANDARDS  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL  
445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
PART 21. POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS  
R 408.12101 Scope.  
Rule 2101. The purpose of these rules is to provide, in or about places of  
employment, minimum safety rules for the care and use of powered industrial trucks and  
to provide for operator safety and specifications of equipment.  
History: 1979 AC; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12102 Rescinded.  
History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12103 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 2103. (1) "Attachment" means a device, other than conventional forks or load  
backrest extension, mounted permanently or removed on the elevating mechanism of a  
truck for handling the load. Popular attachments are fork extensions, clamps, rotating  
devices, side shifters, load stabilizers, rams, and booms.  
(2) "Cantilever truck" means a self-loading counter-balanced or non-  
counterbalanced truck equipped with cantilever load engaging means. (Appendix A.  
Figure 1)  
(3) "Capacity" when referring to trucks, means the following:  
(a) The capacity of a truck equipped with a load carriage and forks, or with  
attachments, is the maximum weight in pounds, at a specified load center which the  
truck, based on the strength of its various components and applicable stability, can lift to  
the maximum elevation of the load engaging means. Alternate capacities may be  
established at the same specified load center and at less than maximum elevation of the  
load engaging means.  
(b) The capacity of a truck equipped with a platform is the maximum weight in  
pounds, at a specified load center which the truck, based on the strength of its various  
components, can lift to the maximum elevation of the load engaging means.  
Page 1  
(4) "Carriage" means a support structure for forks or attachment, generally roller  
mounted, traveling vertically within the mast of a cantilever truck.  
(5) "Center-control truck" means a truck in which the operator's control position is  
located near the longitudinal center of the truck.  
(6) "Counterbalanced truck" means a truck equipped with load engaging means  
wherein all the load during normal transporting is external to the polygon formed by the  
wheel contacts. (Appendix A, Figure 1.)  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12104 Rescinded  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12105 Definitions; D to F.  
Rule 2105. (1) "Drift" means to move without control.  
(2) "Electric truck" means a truck in which the principal energy is transmitted  
to motors in the form of electricity from a power source such as, but not limited to, a  
battery or motor generator.  
(3) "End-control truck" means a truck in which the operator's position is located at  
the end opposite the load.  
(4) "Fixed platform truck" means a truck equipped with a load platform which is  
non-elevating.  
(5) "Forks" means horizontal tine-like projections, normally suspended from the  
carriage, for engaging and supporting loads.  
(6) "Fork height" means the vertical distance from the floor to the load carrying  
surface adjacent to the heel of the forks with mast vertical, and in the case of a reach  
truck, with the forks extended.  
(7) "Fork-lift truck" means a light-lift self-loading truck equipped with load  
carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads.  
(8) "Free play" means an uncontrolled movement.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12106 Definitions; H to I.  
Rule 2106. (1) "High-lift truck" means a self-loading truck equipped with an  
elevating mechanism designed to permit tiering. Popular types are high-lift fork trucks,  
high-lift ram trucks, high-lift boom trucks, high-lift clamp trucks, and high-lift platform  
trucks. (Appendix A, Figure 1.)  
(2) "High-lift platform truck" means a self-loading truck equipped with a load  
platform, intended primarily for transporting and tiering loaded skid platforms.  
(Appendix A, Figure 2.)  
Page 2  
(3) "Industrial crane truck" means a truck intended primarily for pick and carry use  
in warehousing, yarding, or industrial plant operation over improved or hard surfaced  
roads and yards, including maintenance within these areas.  
(4) "Industrial tractor" means a truck designed primarily to draw 1 or more  
non-powered trucks, trailers, or other mobile loads. (Appendix A, Figure 5.)  
(5) "Internal combustion engine truck" means a truck in which the power source is a  
gas, LP gas, gasoline, or diesel type engine.  
(6) "Issuing authority" means an employer or his or her designated representative  
who instructed and trained the operator.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12107 Definitions; L.  
Rule 2107. (1) "Liquefied petroleum gas (LP gas)" means a fuel that is composed  
predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or mixtures of them: propane,  
propylene, butanes (normal butane or iso-butane), and butylenes.  
(2) "Load-axle" means the truck axle nearest the load.  
(3) "Load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork  
carriage frame.  
(4) "Load center" means the horizontal longitudinal distance from the intersection of  
the horizontal load-carrying surfaces and vertical load-engaging faces of the forks, or  
equivalent load positioning structure, to the center of gravity of the load.  
(5) "Load engaging means" means a load handling device attached to a powered  
industrial truck for the purpose of handling a load.  
(6) "Low-lift truck" means a self-loading truck equipped with an elevating  
mechanism designed to raise the load sufficiently to permit horizontal movement.  
Popular types are low-lift platform trucks and pallet trucks. (Appendix A, Figure 3).  
(7) "Low-lift platform truck" means a self-loading truck equipped with a load  
platform intended primarily for transporting loaded skid platforms. (Appendix A, Figure  
3).  
History: 1979 AC; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12108 Definitions; M, N.  
Rule 2108. (1) "Mast" means a support member providing the guideways permitting  
vertical movement of the carriage. It is usually constructed in the form of channels or  
similar sections providing the supporting pathway for the carriage rollers.  
(2) "Motorized hand truck" means a truck designed to be controlled by a walking  
operator and used to lift, tow, carry, stock, and tier materials. (Appendix A, Figure 4).  
(3) "Motorized hand or rider truck" means a dual purpose truck designed to be  
controlled by a walking operator or by a riding operator. (Appendix A, Figure 6).  
(4) "Narrow aisle truck" means a self-loading truck primarily intended for right  
angle stacking in aisles narrower than those normally required by counterbalanced trucks  
of the same capacity. (Appendix A, Figure 10).  
Page 3  
(5) "Non-elevating truck" means a non-counterbalanced truck designed primarily for  
burden-carrying and not capable of self-loading.  
History: 1979 AC; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12109 Definitions; O, P.  
Rule 2109. (1) "Operator" means an employee who has been trained, tested, and  
authorized by the present employer to operate a powered industrial truck.  
(2) "Order picker truck, high-lift" means a high-lift truck controlled by the operator  
stationed on a platform movable with the load engaging means and intended for manual  
stock selection. The truck may be capable of self-loading or tiering or both. (Appendix A,  
Figure 9).  
(3) "Overhead guard" means a framework fitted to a truck over the head of a riding  
operator.  
(4) "Overall lowered mast height" means the maximum vertical dimension from the  
ground or floor to the extreme top point of the mast with the fork carriage in the fully  
lowered position and unloaded.  
(5) "Pallet truck" means a self-loading low-lift truck equipped with wheeled forks of  
dimensions to go under a single faced pallet or between the top and bottom boards of a  
double faced pallet and having wheels capable of lowering into spaces between the  
bottom boards so as to raise the pallet off the floor for transportation. (Appendix A,  
Figure 4).  
(6) "Parking brake" means a device to prevent the movement of a stationary truck.  
(7) "Powered industrial truck" or "truck" means a mobile, power driven vehicle used  
to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier material.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12110 Definitions; R to U.  
Rule 2110. (1) "Reach truck" means a self-loading truck, generally high-lift, having  
load engaging means mounted so the means can be extended forwardly under control to  
permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in  
the retracted position. (Appendix A, Figure 7.)  
(2) "Rough terrain forklift truck" means a wheeled-type truck which is designed  
primarily as a fork truck that has a vertical mast or pivoted boom, or both, which has  
variable fixed length reach and which may be equipped with attachments and that is  
intended for operation on unimproved natural terrain as well as the disturbed terrain of  
construction sites. A machine that is designed primarily for earth-moving, such as a  
loader or dozer, even though its buckets and blades are replaced with forks or a machine  
that is designed primarily as an over-the-road truck that has a lifting device, is not a  
rough terrain forklift truck.  
(3) "Self-loading" means the capability of a truck to pick up, carry, set down and, in  
the case of high-lift types to stack or tier its load without the aid of external means.  
(4) "Service brake" means a device designed to bring a moving truck to a halt.  
Page 4  
(5) "Side loader" means a self-loading truck, generally high-lift, having load  
engaging means mounted in such a manner that the means can be extended laterally  
under control to permit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and  
transported in the retracted position. (Appendix A, Figure 8.)  
(6) "Straddle truck" means a general class of cantilever truck with horizontal  
structural wheel supported members extending forward from the main body of the truck,  
generally high-lift, for picking up and hauling loads between its outrigger arms.  
(Appendix A, Figure 10.)  
(7) "Tire" means a tire which may be standard solid, cushion solid, pneumatic or  
solid pneumatic style.  
(8) "Tiering" means a process of placing a load on or above another load.  
(9) "Unattended truck" means a truck which is beyond the vision or more than 25  
feet from the operator, whichever is less.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12111 Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 2111. (1) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and  
are available from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado, 80112,  
USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at website:  
http://global.ihs.com; at a cost as of the time of adoption of these rules, as stated in these  
rules.  
(2) A powered industrial truck manufactured after January 15, 1971, but before  
1993, shall be certified by the manufacturer that the truck covered by this part has been  
produced according to the mandatory requirements of sections 3 and 4, except subsection  
421 of section 4, of the American National Standards Institute Standard ANSI standard  
B56.1 “Safety Standards For Powered Industrial Trucks,” 1969 edition. Cost: $60.00.  
(3) A low lift or high lift truck manufactured after April 26, 2000 shall be in  
compliance with the requirements of ANSI standard B56.1 “Safety Standard For Low  
Lift And High Lift Trucks,” 1993 edition, except as noted in subrule(1) of this rule. Cost:  
$61.00.  
(4) A rough terrain fork lift truck manufactured after April 26, 2000 shall be in  
compliance with the requirements of ANSI standard B56.1 “Rough Terrain Fork Lift  
Trucks,” 1993 edition. Cost: $68.00.  
(5) A industrial crane truck manufactured after April 26, 2000 shall be in  
compliance with ANSI standard B56.7 “Safety Standard For Industrial Crane Trucks,”  
1987 edition. Cost: $60.00.  
(6) A tow tractor manufactured after April 26, 2000 shall be in compliance with  
ANSI standard B56.92 “Operator Controlled Industrial Tow Tractors,” 1992 edition.  
Cost: $56.00.  
(7) A manually propelled high lift industrial truck manufactured after April 26, 2000  
shall be in compliance with ANSI standard B56.10 “Manually Propelled High Lift  
Industrial Trucks,” 1992 edition. Cost: $105.00.  
(8) National Fire Protection Agency Standard NFPA 505 “Fire Safety Standard for  
Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions,  
Maintenance, and Operations,” 1996 edition. Cost: $27.00.  
Page 5  
(9) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the  
Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section,  
530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(10) The standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the publisher or may  
be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA  
Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing,  
Michigan, 48909-8143, plus $20.00 for shipping and handling.  
(11) The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P. O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at website:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time  
of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 1 “General Provisions,”  
R 408.10001 to R 408.10098.  
(b) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(c) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective  
Equipment” R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
(d) General Industry Safety Standard Part 56 “Storage and Handling of Liquefied  
Petroleum Gases,” R 408.15601 to R 408.15601.  
(e) General Industry Safety Standard Part 75 “Flammable Liquids,” R 408.17501 to  
R 408.17502.  
(f) General Industry Safety Standard Part 92 “Hazard Communication,”  
R 408.19201 to R 408.19204.  
(g) Occupational Health Standard Part 433 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
R 325.60001 to R 325.60013.  
(h) Occupational Health Standard Part 472 “Medical Services and First Aid,”  
R 325.47201 to R 325.47201.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2016 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
NAMEPLATES AND MARKINGS  
R 408.12121 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12122 Approved labels.  
Rule 2122. (1) A powered industrial truck which has been accepted by an  
approved testing laboratory shall bear a label or marking indicating such acceptance.  
(2) A nameplate, label or tag provided on such a truck shall be maintained in  
place and in legible condition.  
Page 6  
History: 1979 AC.  
Editor's note: Former R 408.12122, deriving from 1954 ACS 66, was rescinded by 1954 ACS  
73, Eff. Nov. 10, 1972; 1979 AC.  
R 408.12123 -- R 408.12129 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12130 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
EQUIPMENT  
R 408.12131 Warning devices and lights.  
Rule 2131. (1) A truck, except a motorized hand truck, shall be equipped with an  
audible device to warn of approach.  
(2) A truck used in areas where general lighting is less than 2 foot-candles shall be  
equipped with auxiliary lights that illuminate work in process.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12132 Modifications.  
Rule 2132. (1) An employer shall not install an additional counterweight without  
written assurance from the manufacturer of the truck that the truck will meet the stability  
requirements of ANSI standard B56.1 “Safety Standard for Low Lift and High Lift  
Trucks" 1993 edition, as adopted in R 408.12111.  
(2) An employer shall not make other modifications affecting capacity or safety  
without written approval of the manufacturer or an engineer knowledgeable on the  
subject. Capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be  
changed accordingly.  
(3) If the truck is equipped with front end attachments, the name plate shall be  
marked to show all of the following:  
(a) Identification of the attachments.  
(b) The approximate weight of the truck and attachment.  
(c) The load capacity of the truck and attachment combination at maximum  
elevation of the load engaging means with load laterally centered.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
Page 7  
R 408.12133 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12134 Parking brakes; tires.  
Rule 2134. (1) The parking brake on a sit-down rider truck shall be capable of  
holding the truck on the maximum grade which the truck can negotiate with rated load,  
or on a 15% grade, whichever is lesser. The parking brake shall be manually or  
automatically applied and shall remain applied until released by the operator.  
(2) Tires shall be used as recommended by the truck manufacturer.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12135 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12136. Operator platforms.  
Rule 2136. (1) An end control, reach, narrow aisle, order picker high-lift, order  
picking and stacking, and motorized hand rider truck shall be equipped with a platform  
extended beyond the operator's position, and shall withstand a compression load equal to  
the weight of the loaded vehicle applied along the longitudinal axis of the truck with the  
outermost projection of the platform against a flat vertical surface. The back protective  
guard where provided shall permit rapid and unobstructed ingress or egress from the  
platform.  
(2) On a double end control baggage type truck or a truck that may be transported on  
short elevators, means shall be provided to prevent accidental folding of the operator's  
folding platform.  
(3) All of the following apply to an order picker truck, high-lift:  
(a) A removable operator platform shall be provided with a device that attaches the  
platform to the lifting means.  
(b) The operator platform shall be equipped with side guard rails.  
(c) When the platform is elevated, the horizontal travel speed of the truck shall be  
automatically reduced to a degree necessary to maintain stability under maximum  
braking load and turning.  
(d) Subdivisions (a) and (c) of this subrule pertain only to a truck manufactured after  
the effective date of January 15, 1971.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12137 Steering control.  
Rule 2137. (1) An employer shall assure that, except on a motorized hand and  
motorized hand or rider truck, the steering control of a powered industrial truck is  
Page 8  
contained within the outlines of the planes of the truck, or guarded to prevent injury to  
the operator during movement of the controls when passing an obstacle such as a wall,  
post, equipment, box, or other truck.  
(2) An employer shall assure that on a motorized hand and motorized hand or rider  
truck, the steering handle is provided with a guard or device to protect the operator's  
hands from injury when passing an obstacle such as a wall, post, equipment, box, or  
another truck.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12138. Load handling controls, general.  
Rule 2138. All of the following apply to a load handling control on a truck:  
(a) Is preferably located for right hand operation.  
(b) Is a single lever used to perform more than one function. Push button or pre-  
selected controls shall be properly identified.  
(c) Is clearly and durably identified to indicate function and direction of motion of  
load or equipment.  
(d) Is self-centering.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS.  
R 408.12139 Load handling controls; direction of motion and guards.  
Rule 2139. (1) A lever or handle type control, including a toggle switch, shall be in  
accordance with Table 1 “Direction of Motion.”  
(2) Moving parts that represent a hazard from the operator's position shall be  
protected by suitable guards.  
Page 9  
TABLE 1  
DIRECTION OF MOTION  
Of the Operator’s Hand When  
Of Load Or  
Equipment  
Actuating The Control Handle While  
Function  
Facing  
The Load  
up  
rearward or up  
Hoist  
Tilt  
down  
forward  
extend  
release  
left  
forward or down  
rearward  
retract  
*rearward or up  
forward or down  
*rearward  
Reach  
Clamp  
Side Shift  
forward  
clamp  
rearward or up  
forward or down  
right  
rearward or up  
forward or down  
clockwise  
rearward or up  
Rotate  
Laterally  
counterclockwise  
forward or down  
Rotate  
Longitudinal  
ly  
rearward  
forward  
*rearward or up  
forward or down  
*The sense of rotation of the control handle is intended to be in the same direction  
as the desired motion of the mast or load.  
History: 1979 AC; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12141 Rescinded.  
Page 10  
History: 1954 ACS 66, Eff. Jan. 15, 1971; rescinded 1954 ACS 73, Eff. Nov. 10, 1972.  
R 408.12143 Overhead guard on high-lift truck.  
Rule 2143. (1) Except as provided in subrule (2) of this rule, a high-lift truck shall  
be fitted with an overhead guard. The overhead guard shall be capable of supporting a  
uniformly distributed static load in accordance with the following table. The overhead  
guard is not intended to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.  
(2) Table 2 “Overhead Guard Test” reads as follows:  
TABLE 2  
OVERHEAD GUARD TEST  
Truck Capacity Rating  
(in pounds)  
Static Test Load as a% of Truck capacity  
Rating  
Through 5,000  
200% of truck rating  
10,000 pounds  
plus 100% of increment rating over 5,000  
pounds  
15,000 pounds  
plus 50% increment rating over 10,000  
pounds  
Over 5,000 through 10, 000  
Over 10,000 through 20,000  
(3) An overhead guard may be omitted from a high-lift truck if the truck is never  
used to lift or raise material or objects more than 72 inches measured from the floor to the  
forks and if all of the following are complied with:  
(a) The load is limited to a single rack or pallet.  
(b) The truck is not operated in an area where material or objects are stacked above  
the operator's head.  
(c) A sign with lettering not less than 1/2-inch high is securely attached in the area  
of the operator's controls stating, "This truck shall not be used to lift materials above the  
operator's head or in an area where materials are stacked above the operator's head."  
(4) A low-lift rider truck which is used to lift material stacked higher than the head  
of the operator, and which would likely vibrate and fall back onto the operator, shall be  
provided with an overhead guard.  
(5) The overhead guard shall be capable of withstanding the impact of a 100-pound  
solid hardwood cube, or equivalent, dropped a distance of 5 feet 10 times, without failure  
or without permanent deflection exceeding 3/4 inch.  
(6) The overhead guard shall be constructed in a manner that does not interfere with  
visibility. Openings in the top shall not exceed 6 inches in 1 of the 2 dimensions, width  
or length. The guard shall be large enough to extend over the operator under all normal  
circumstances of truck operation, including forward tilt.  
Page 11  
(7) A fork truck equipped with a single-tilt cylinder shall be made to avoid injury to  
the operator by the overhead guard resulting from failure of this cylinder or associated  
parts.  
(8) On a truck where the operator is seated, a vertical clearance of not less than 39  
inches should be maintained from the point of maximum depression of the seat under the  
operator to the underside of the section of the overhead guard under which the operator's  
head moves during normal operation.  
(9) On a powered industrial truck where the operator stands on a platform, a vertical  
clearance of not less than 74 inches should be maintained from the platform to the  
underside of the section of the overhead guard under which the operator's head moves  
during normal operation.  
(10) Where head room conditions limit the overall lowered height of the truck, a  
normal overhead guard height may be reduced.  
(11) An overhead guard is intended to offer protection from the impact of small  
packages, boxes, and bagged material representative of the job application, but not to  
withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES  
R 408.12151. Operator selection.  
Rule 2151. An employer shall be able to demonstrate that an employee is trained and  
qualified to operate a powered industrial truck prior to authorizing the employee to  
operate a powered industrial truck.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12152 Training.  
Rule 2152. (1) An employer shall provide training to the employee before the  
employee's assignment as an operator of a powered industrial truck. Instruction shall  
include all of the following:  
(a) Capacities of the equipment and attachments.  
(b) Purpose, use, and limitations of controls.  
(c) How to make daily checks.  
(d) Practice and operating assigned vehicles through the mechanical functions  
necessary to perform the required job.  
(e) The requirements contained in R 408.12171 to R 408.12193.  
(f) Hazards associated with exhaust gases produced by fossil fuel powered industrial  
trucks such as carbon monoxide, or components of diesel exhaust, and hazards associated  
with the handling of electrolyte chemicals used for battery operated trucks such as  
sulphuric acid, shall be provided in accordance with General Industry Safety Standard  
Part 92 “Hazard Communication,” as referenced in R 408.12111.  
Page 12  
(2) Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction such as lecture,  
discussion, interactive computer learning, videotape, written material, practical training,  
and testing of the operator's performance in the workplace as required in R 408.12153.  
(3) An employer shall provide refresher training in relevant topics to an operator  
under any of the following conditions:  
(a) An operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner.  
(b) An operator has been involved in an accident or a near-miss incident.  
(c) An operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not  
operating the truck safely.  
(d) An operator is assigned to a different type of truck.  
(e) A condition in the workplace changes that could affect safe operation of the  
truck.  
(4) An evaluation of each operator's performance shall be conducted before renewal  
of a truck operator permit. An individual who is authorized by the employer and who has  
the knowledge, training, and experience to train and evaluate the competence of the  
operator shall provide training and evaluation.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.12152 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Annual Administrative Code Supplement, 2016. The memorandum  
requesting the correction was published in Michigan Register, 2017 MR 6.  
R 408.12153 Testing.  
Rule 2153. (1) An employer shall test an employee before authorizing the employee  
to operate a powered industrial truck, except a motorized hand truck. The test shall check  
the employees on the following:  
(a) Operating ability.  
(b) Knowledge of the equipment.  
(c) Knowledge of the requirements contained in R 408.12171 to R 408.12193.  
(d) Knowledge of daily checks.  
(2) An employer shall provide for a performance test to determine whether the  
employee can operate the assigned powered industrial truck through the functions  
necessary to perform the required work.  
(3) An employee who has a valid permit to operate a powered industrial truck issued  
by another employer may be tested as prescribed in this rule without meeting the training  
requirements of R 408.12152.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12154. Permits.  
Rule 2154. (1) An employer shall provide the employee with a permit to operate a  
powered industrial truck only after meeting the requirements prescribed in R 408.12151,  
Page 13  
R 408.12152, and R 408.12153. A permit is optional for operators of motorized hand low  
lift trucks.  
(2) An employee being trained is exempt from the permit requirement of subrule (1)  
of this rule for a period of not more than 30 days, provided the employee is under the  
supervision of an individual who is authorized by the employer and who has the  
knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and to evaluate their competence,  
and that the training period does not endanger the trainee or other employees.  
(3) A permit shall be carried by the operator or be available upon request by a  
department representative at all times during working hours.  
(4) A permit shall indicate the type of truck an operator has been trained on and is  
qualified to operate.  
(5) A permit to operate a powered industrial truck is valid only with the employer  
who issued the permit, and the permit shall be issued for a period of not more than 3  
years. An employee may continue to operate a powered industrial truck if the employee's  
handicaps or inabilities do not prove detrimental to his or her task.  
(6) A permit shall contain all of the following information (see sample permit):  
(a) Firm name.  
(b) Operator's name.  
(c) Operator I.D. number, if any.  
(d) Name of issuing authority.  
(e) Type of truck authorized to operate.  
(f) Operator restrictions, if any. The permit shall state the nature of the restriction.  
(g) Date issued.  
(h) Date expiring.  
(7) A sample permit is set forth as follows:  
Page 14  
SAMPLE PERMIT  
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK OPERATOR PERMIT  
(Insert Firm Name)  
Operator's  
Name:_____________________________________________________________  
Operator's  
Number:___________________________________________________________  
Is Authorized To  
Operate:______________________________________________________  
(Insert Type of Truck(s) Authorized)  
Restrictions:________________________________________________________________  
_
(Explanation of Restrictions)  
Date  
Issued:_________________________________________________________________  
(Month Day Year)  
Date  
Expiring:_______________________________________________________________  
(Month Day Year)  
By Issuing Authority: _________________________________________________________  
Title  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12155 Restriction of use.  
Rule 2155. A powered industrial truck used in an environment containing the  
following substances shall be equipped as prescribed in NFPA standard 505 “Fire Safety  
Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use,  
Conversions, Maintenance, and Operations,” 1996 edition, as adopted in R 408.12111.  
Page 15  
(a) Gases or vapors, such as, but not limited to, acetylene, hydrogen, oxygen, ether,  
gasoline, naphtha, or acetone, which may be present in quantities sufficient to produce an  
explosive or ignitable mixture.  
(b) Combustible mixtures of dusts such as, but not limited to, metal dust, coal dust,  
coke dust, grain dust, flour dust, or organic dust.  
(c) Ignitable fibres such as, but not limited to, baled waste, cocoa fibre, cotton,  
excelsior, kapok, or oakum.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2016 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12161 Mechanical condition and maintenance.  
Rule 2161. (1) An employer shall not permit a powered industrial truck to be used  
if:  
(a) The service and parking brakes do not perform their intended function.  
(b) The fuel system leaks.  
(c) A lift cylinder of a load engaging means allows a downward drift of the load  
engaging means loaded or unloaded in excess of 5 inches in 5 minutes.  
(d) A tilt cylinder of a mast allows a forward drift of the mast in excess of 2  
degrees in 5 minutes with the mast in a vertical position and a capacity load on the fork  
or load engaging means.  
(e) The steering mechanism allows free play of the steering wheel of more than  
1/4 turn on trucks capable of speeds up to 8 miles per hour and more than 1/8 turn on  
trucks capable of speeds over 8 miles per hour.  
(f) A hydraulic system leaks and creates a hazard for an employee and  
equipment in the area.  
(2) Repairs to a fuel and ignition system which involve a fire hazard shall be  
made only in a designated location. Repairs shall not be made in a location made  
hazardous by:  
(a) Flammable gases or vapors.  
(b) Combustible dusts.  
(c) Ignitable fibers.  
(3) Repairs to the truck electrical system shall be made only after the battery has  
been disconnected.  
(4) A replacement part shall have not less than the equivalent safety of the original  
part.  
(5) A water muffler shall have the water maintained at not less than 75% of capacity.  
A water muffler equipped with a screen shall have the screen maintained to  
accomplish its intended purpose. When an exhaust system of this type emits sparks or  
flames, the truck shall be removed from service and repaired.  
(6) A truck running in excess of normal operating temperature which creates a  
hazardous condition shall be removed from service and repaired.  
(7) A truck shall be maintained in a condition reasonably free of lint, excess oil,  
and grease. Solvent with a flash point of less than 100 degrees Fahrenheit shall not  
be used to clean the truck. Precautions regarding ventilation, fire, and toxicity shall  
be observed when using a cleaning agent.  
Page 16  
(8) A truck approved for use of 1 type of fuel may be converted to another type  
of fuel if the conversion qualifies the truck to its new designation, such as GS, LP,  
or LPS. Only approved parts shall be used.  
The conversion shall be as prescribed in R 408.12132(2).  
(9) All repairs shall be made by authorized personnel.  
History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS.  
R 408.12162 Blocks and safety stands for maintenance.  
Rule 2162. (1) An employer shall provide the following:  
(a) Chock blocks, support blocks, or jack stands  
for  
the  
maintenance  
department's use when repairing powered industrial trucks or their components.  
(b) Blocks or safety stands as a means of support for powered industrial trucks  
elevated from the floor by a hoist or chain fall.  
(2) When repairing a powered industrial truck, an employee shall use chock  
blocks, support blocks, or jack stands if there is a hazard from movement.  
(3) An employee shall not place his or her body under a powered industrial  
truck unless the powered industrial truck is supported by properly arranged blocks  
or jack stands capable, in total, of supporting a minimum of 1 1/2 times the weight of  
the component of the truck to be repaired.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS.  
R 408.12163 Fuel.  
Rule 2163. (1) An employer shall provide safety fuel cans where trucks are refueled  
with gasoline at other than a gas pump area.  
(2) An employer shall provide a special area for refueling that is not less than 25 feet  
from a source of open flame or spark and the area shall be posted to this effect.  
(3) Use and storage of LP gas shall be as specified by General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 56 “Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases,” as referenced in  
R 408.12111.  
(4) Handling and storage of fuel, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, shall be as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 75 “Flammable and Combustible  
Liquids,” as referenced in R 408.12111.  
(5) Smoking while refueling is prohibited.  
(6) Fuel level shall not be checked by use of an open flame.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12164 Electric trucks.  
Rule 2164. (1) Where electric trucks are used, an employer shall provide a  
designated area for battery changing, charging, or both, which shall be performed by a  
trained and authorized employee.  
Page 17  
(2) An employer shall ensure that provisions are made in a battery charging area  
where batteries are removed from the truck for flushing and neutralization of spillage, for  
fire protection, and for air movement sufficient to disperse fumes from gassing batteries.  
(3) Smoking and other sources of ignition is prohibited in these areas.  
(4) An employer shall assure that an employee is trained to position the truck and  
apply the brake before changing or charging a battery and to position and secure a  
reinstalled battery before releasing the truck for use.  
(5) Material handling equipment, such as, but not limited to, a conveyor or overhead  
hoist, shall be used for removing and replacing a battery. A spreader bar or an equivalent  
device shall be used with any overhead battery hoist so that the lifting stresses are  
vertical. A chain type powered battery hoist shall have a container to accumulate the  
excess lifting chain. When a hand hoist is used, an uncovered battery shall be covered to  
prevent the hand chain from shorting on cell connectors or terminals. Tools and other  
metallic objects shall be kept away from the terminals.  
(6) When mixing electrolyte for a battery, an employer shall ensure the use of a  
carboy tilter or siphon for handling electrolyte. Acid concentrate shall be poured into  
water. Water shall not be poured into acid concentrate.  
(7) The following apply to charging a battery:  
(a) The vent cap shall be kept in place and functioning.  
(b) The battery or compartment covers where provided shall be kept open to  
dissipate heat and gases.  
(8) The electrolyte level shall not be checked with an open flame.  
(9) Where there is a potential for employee exposure to injurious corrosive  
electrolyte solutions, for example sulfuric acid, associated with battery powered industrial  
trucks, the employer shall provide both of the following:  
(a) Personal protective equipment in accordance with General Industry Safety and  
Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment” and Occupational Health  
Standard Part 433 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.12111.  
(b) Suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of eyes and body within the  
work area for immediate emergency use in accordance with Occupational Health  
Standard Part 472 “Medical Services and First Aid,” as referenced in R 408.12111.  
History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12165 Dockboards and plates.  
Rule 2165. (1) The carrying capacity shall be marked on a dockboard or plate  
purchased after April 17, 1979.  
(2) Where a fork truck is used, fork loops, pockets, or lugs shall be provided for safe  
handling.  
(3) A dockboard or plate shall have a slip-resistant surface, such as, but not limited  
to, a tread plate, designed to reduce the possibility of slipping by an employee or truck.  
(4) For dockboards, see General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2  
“Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.12111, for additional requirements.  
History: 1979 AC; 2016 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
Page 18  
R 408.12166 Order picker trucks; high-lift platforms.  
Rule 2166. Whenever an order picker truck, high-lift is equipped with vertical  
only or vertical and horizontal controls traveling with the lifting carriage or forks  
for lifting an employee, an employer shall assure that the following is provided:  
(a) A platform equipped with railing or other limiting device, including but not  
limited to a chain, strap or tether.  
(b) A control device whereby the employee on the platform can shut off the  
power to the truck.  
(c) Protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by the operating  
conditions.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12167 Fork lift truck platforms.  
Rule 2167. (1) An employee shall not be lifted or transported, except when a  
platform is attached to the forks by enclosed sleeves, a safety chain, or a mechanical  
device in such a manner that the platform cannot tip or slip.  
(2) A platform shall be equipped with a railing not less than 36 inches or more than  
42 inches high and a toeboard. The railing shall consist of 1 of the following materials:  
(a) Wood posts of at least 2 x 4 inch nominal stock; the top rail shall be made of 2  
right angle pieces of not less than 1 x 4 inch nominal stock and an intermediate rail of 1  
x 4 inch nominal stock.  
(b) Steel or aluminum pipe posts and rails of not less than  
diameter and an intermediate rail of 3/4 inch inside diameter pipe.  
1
inch inside  
(c) Structural steel or aluminum posts, rails and intermediate rail of angle iron of  
not less than 1 x 1 x 3/16 inch size or other shapes of equal strength.  
(3) The intermediate rail may be omitted from 1 side.  
(4) A toeboard shall be made of not less than 1 x 4 inches nominal wood stock or  
a material of equal strength.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12168 Load backrest extensions.  
Rule 2168. A load backrest extension, manufactured in accordance with R  
408.12111, shall be used whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of a load, or  
part of it, falling rearward.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.12168 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Michigan Register, 1979 AC. The memorandum requesting the  
correction was published in Michigan Register, 2006 MR 4.  
Page 19  
R 408.12169 Spinner knobs.  
Rule 2169. A spinner knob shall not be attached to a steering hand-wheel of a truck  
unless originally equipped with such; the truck is equipped with power steering; or the  
truck is equipped with an anti-kickback device on the steering mechanism. The knob  
shall be installed within the periphery of the handwheel.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES  
R 408.12171. Daily checks.  
Rule 2171. (1) At the start of each shift, the operator of a powered industrial truck or  
a qualified employee shall perform daily checks of the equipment as required by the  
employer. See Appendix B for suggested inspection checklist.  
(2) An employer shall ensure that any defects that would affect the safe operation of  
the equipment are repaired before use.  
(3) An operator shall promptly report any defect on the powered industrial truck to  
the employer.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2016 AACS.  
R 408.12172. General operating rules.