DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-18, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4,  
MCL 408.1016, 408.1021, 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 52. SAWMILLS  
GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.15201 Scope.  
Rule 5201. This standard provides for the safe maintenance and operation of  
machinery and equipment by the employer and their safe use by the employees for  
sawmills, including wood pallet and wood box making plants, in or about places of  
employment in this state.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15202 Definitions; B.  
Rule 5202. (1) “Binder” means a chain, cable, or rope used to bind loads.  
(2) “Bolt” means a log which is cut to a length of 8 feet or less and which is ready  
for sawing into boards.  
(3) “Bolt saw” means a saw that is used to cut bolts into cants or boards.  
(4) “Boom” means logs or timbers fastened together end-to-end and used to contain  
floating logs. The term includes enclosed logs.  
(5) “Boom sticks” means logs or timbers used in making up a boom.  
(6) “Brow log” means a log placed parallel to a roadway at a landing or dump to  
protect vehicles while loading or unloading.  
(7) “Bunk” or “dunnage” means a cross support for a load.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15203 Definitions; C.  
Rule 5203. (1) "Cant" means a log slabbed on 1 or more sides.  
(2) "Carrier" means an industrial truck which is designed and constructed  
so that it straddles the load to be transported and is equipped with mechanisms to  
pick up the load and support it during transportation.  
Page 1  
(3) "Chipper" means a machine which cuts material into chips of  
predetermined size.  
(4) "Chock" or "bunk block" means a wedge that prevents logs or loads from  
moving.  
a
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15204 Definitions; D to G.  
Rule 5204. (1) "Debarker" or "barker" means a machine which removes the bark  
from a log.  
(2) "Dog" means a steel tooth, 1 or more of which are attached to each carriage to  
hold a log in place on a carriage.  
(3) "Edger" means a machine consisting of 2 or more circular saws used to cut  
boards to width.  
(4) "Gang saw" means a machine consisting of 2 or more saw blades used to break  
down sawmill materials into multiple widths.  
(5) "Green chain" means 2 or more endless runs of chain used to carry boards  
from the final saw.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15205 Definitions; H.  
Rule 5205. (1) “Head block” means a part of a carriage that holds a log and upon  
which the log rests. It generally consists of base, knee, taper set, and mechanism.  
(2) “Head rig” means a combination of a headsaw and carriage used for the initial  
breakdown of a log into timbers, cants, and boards.  
(3) “Headsaw” means a saw, either circular or band type, used for the initial  
breakdown of a log into timbers, cants, and boards.  
(4) “Hog” means a machine used for cutting, chipping, or grinding slabs, bark, and  
other coarse residue.  
(5) “Husk” means the framework of a circular headsaw.  
(6) “Head sawyer” means an operator of a headsaw.  
(7) “Kiln tender” means the operator of a kiln.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15206 Definitions: L to R.  
Rule 5206. (1) "Live rolls" means cylinders of wood or metal mounted on  
horizontal axes or shafts and rotated by power, which are used to convey slabs, lumber  
and other wood products.  
(2) "Log deck" means a platform on which logs lay awaiting debarking or sawing.  
(3) "Log haul" means a conveyor for transferring logs to the mill.  
(4) "Log turner" means a device used to turn logs for head sawing.  
(5) "Package" means a unit of lumber.  
Page 2  
(6) "Personal protective equipment" means the apparel worn by the employee  
to protect his person from injury.  
(7) "Pike pole" means a long pole whose end is shod with a sharp pointed spike.  
(8) "Point of operation" means the area of a machine where material is actually  
worked.  
(9) "Reeving" means to pass or thread a rope through a hole or block.  
(10) "Resaw" means circular, band, or gang saw used to break down slabs or cants  
to boards.  
(11) "Roll case" means a horizontal or inclined  
conveyor  
comprised  
of  
cylindrical rolls, which are sometimes powered, and which are used for the transfer of  
logs or lumber from 1 work station to another.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15207 Definitions; S.  
Rule 5207. (1) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of  
material or object to the actual safe load when in use.  
(2) "Safety hook" means a hoisting hook with means to retain a hoisted object on  
the hook.  
(3) "Saw guide" means a device for steadying a circular or band saw.  
(4) "Sawmill carriage" means framework mounted on wheels which runs on  
tracks or in grooves in a direction parallel to the face of a saw and which contains  
apparatus to hold a log and advance it toward a saw.  
(5) "Setworks" means a mechanism on a carriage used to move a log into  
position for another cut.  
(6) "Splitter" means a knife-type, nonrotating spreader.  
(7) "Spreader" means a wheel that separates a board from a log in back of a circular  
saw to prevent binding.  
(8) "Sticker" means a strip of material used in stacking to separate courses of  
boards.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15208 Definitions; T.  
Rule 5208. (1) "Tailer" means an employee who stands opposite the feed end of a  
machine and removes the processed stock.  
(2) "Telltales" means a device such as pieces of rope used to serve as a warning for  
overhead objects.  
(3) "Top saw" means the upper of 2 circular saws on a head rig, both being on  
the same husk.  
(4) "Transfer deck" means an area where boards are transferred from head saw or  
edger to the trim saw.  
(5) "Trimmer saw" means a machine consisting of 2 or more circular saws used to  
cut boards to length.  
Page 3  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15209 Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 5209. (1) The following standards are adopted in these rules and are available  
from Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado,  
USA, 80112, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at web-site:  
http://global.ihs.com; at a cost, as of the time of adoption of these rules, as stated in these  
rules:  
(a) American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI A11.1 “Industrial  
Lighting,” 1965 edition. Cost $153.00.  
(b) ANSI Z21.30 “Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping,” 1964 edition.  
Cost: $90.00.  
(2) The following standards are adopted in these rules and are available from the  
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy,  
Massachusetts, USA, 02169-7471, telephone number: 1-617-770-3000 or via the internet  
at website: www.nfpa.org; at a cost, as of the time of adoption of these rules, as stated in  
these rules:  
(a) NFPA 91 “Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or  
Conveying,” 1961 edition. Cost $27.00.  
(b) NFPA 302 “Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial Motor Craft,”  
1968 edition. Cost $27.00.  
(3) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the Michigan  
Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section,  
530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(4) Copies of the standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the  
publisher or may be obtained from the Michigan Department of Licensing and  
Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street,  
P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus  
$20.00 for shipping and handling.  
(5) The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at web-site:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, as of the  
time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards for Power Transmission,”  
R 408.10701 to R 408.10765.  
(c) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 21 “Powered Industrial  
Trucks,” R 408.12101 to R 408.12193.  
(d) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 27 “Woodworking  
Machinery,” R 408.12701 to R 408.12799.  
(e) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective  
Equipment,” R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
Page 4  
(f) Occupational Health Standard Part 301 “Air Contaminants for General Industry,”  
R 325.51101 to R 325.51108.  
(g) Occupational Health Standard Part 433 “Personal Protective Equipment,”  
R 325.60001 to R 325.60013.  
History: 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15211 Employer responsibilities.  
Rule 5211. (1) An employer shall do all of the following:  
(a) Provide training to each employee as to hazards and safe operation of the  
assigned job.  
(b) Maintain machinery, equipment, buildings, ramps, platforms, and aisles in a  
hazard-free condition. When a hazardous condition develops concerning floors, docks,  
and passageways that cannot be immediately repaired, the area shall be guarded until  
adequate repairs are made.  
(c) Provide head protection which shall be used by all employees outside the office,  
including those in the dry storage area, as prescribed in General Industry Safety and  
Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
(d) Provide, and an employee shall use, eye protection as prescribed in General  
Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as  
referenced in R 408.15209. If impact resistance is not required, the employee may wear a  
steel wire or nylon mesh screen, or equivalent, mounted on a protective helmet. The  
screen shall be of sufficient strength to protect the face to below the nose from chips or  
sawdust from the saw.  
(e) Provide an approved life jacket to an employee working over water, at no  
expense to the employee.  
(f) Install all gas piping and appliances as prescribed in ANSI standard Z21.30  
“Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping,” 1964 edition, as referenced in  
R 408.15209.  
(2) Physical hazard color identification marking shall be in accordance with the  
following requirements:  
(a) Red shall be the basic color for the identification of any of the following:  
(i) Fire protection equipment and apparatus.  
(ii) Danger, such as any of the following:  
(A) Safety cans or other portable containers of flammable liquids having a flash  
point at or below 80º F.  
(B) Table containers of flammable liquids, open cup tester, excluding shipping  
containers, shall be painted red with some additional clearly visible identification either  
in the form of a yellow band around the can or the name of the contents conspicuously  
stenciled or painted on the can in yellow.  
(C) Red lights shall be provided at barricades and at temporary obstructions.  
(D) Danger signs shall be painted red.  
(iii) Stop, shall apply to both of the following:  
(A) Emergency stop bars on hazardous machines such as rubber mills, wire blocks,  
flat work ironers, and others, shall be red.  
Page 5  
(B) Stop buttons or electrical switches where letters or other markings appear, and  
are used for emergency stopping of machinery shall be red.  
(b) Yellow shall be the basic color for designating caution and for marking physical  
hazards for as any of the following:  
(i) Striking against.  
(ii) Stumbling.  
(iii) Falling.  
(iv) Tripping.  
(v) "Caught in between."  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15212 Employees general duties.  
Rule 5212. An employee shall do all of the following:  
(a) Abide by the safety procedures pertaining to the job as prescribed by the  
employer and comply with these rules.  
(b) Examine the work area and equipment that is going to be used before work  
begins and report a dangerous or unsafe condition in the work area or equipment to the  
immediate supervisor.  
(c) Refrain from a reckless practice or action which could result in an accident or  
injury.  
(d) Not operate a machine without prior  
authorization.  
training,  
instruction,  
and  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15212a Protective equipment.  
Rule 5212a. The use of chemicals shall be controlled so as to protect employees  
from harmful exposure to toxic materials. Where necessary, employees shall be provided  
with and required to wear protective equipment that will afford adequate protection  
against harmful exposure as required by General Industry Safety and Health Standard  
Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” and Occupational Health Part 433 “Personal  
Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
History: 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15213 Burners.  
Rule 5213. (1) If the burner stack is not self-supporting, it shall be guyed or  
otherwise supported.  
(2) The conveyor runway to the burner shall be equipped with a standard handrail.  
If the runway crosses a roadway or thoroughfare, standard toeboards shall be  
provided in addition.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 6  
R 408.15221 Illumination.  
Rule 5221. (1) Illumination shall be provided at the operator’s work station to  
maintain a minimum of 30 foot candle intensity, except at a debarker, head saw or trim  
saw. A minimum of 30 foot candle intensity shall be provided at the point of operation of  
a debarker, head saw or trim saw.  
(2) Work areas under mills shall be as evenly surfaced as local conditions permit.  
Work areas under mills shall not have unnecessary obstructions and shall have lighting  
facilities in accordance with ANSI A11.1 “Industrial Lighting” 1965 edition, as adopted  
in R 408.15209  
(3) Log dumps, booms, ponds, or storage areas used at night shall be illuminated in  
accordance with the requirements of ANSI A11.1 “Industrial Lighting” 1965 edition, as  
adopted in R 408.15209  
(4) An employer shall ensure that illumination is provided and designed to supply  
adequate general and local lighting to rooms, buildings, and work areas when in use.  
(5) The adequacy and effectiveness of illumination shall be determined using all of  
the following factors:  
(a) The quantity of light in foot-candle intensity is sufficient for the work being  
done.  
(b) The quality of the light is free from glare, and has correct direction, diffusion,  
and distribution.  
(c) Shadows and extreme contrasts are avoided or kept to a minimum.  
(6) All stairways shall be adequately lighted as prescribed in subrules (4) and (5) of  
this rule.  
(7) Fuel houses, bunkers, hoppers, and bins shall have adequate exits and lighting,  
and all necessary safety devices shall be provided. Persons entering fuel houses, bunkers,  
hoppers, and bins shall use the safety devices.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15222 Walking-working surfaces.  
Rule 5222. (1) An aisle or floor work area shall be kept free of protruding objects,  
holes, and loose boards.  
(2) A floor at the operator's station of a machine shall be maintained free of any slip  
or trip hazard.  
(3) A floor shall be capable of sustaining the imposed load.  
(4) An aisle, passageway, roadway, or dock shall be of such width as to provide for  
the safe passage of employees or vehicles, or both. A dock where powered industrial  
trucks are used shall be provided with a guard or bumper along its perimeter, except at  
loading or unloading points, to prevent overrun.  
(5) A swinging door shall be provided with a window in each section. The window  
shall be of clear safety glass or equivalent material or protected against breakage.  
(6) Where a doorway opens upon a railroad track or upon a tramway or dock over  
which vehicles travel, a barrier or other warning device shall be placed to prevent  
employees from stepping into moving traffic.  
Page 7  
(7) Where elevated platforms are used routinely on a daily basis, the elevated  
platforms shall be equipped with stairways or fixed ladders that comply with General  
Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced  
in R 408.15209.  
(8) Stairways shall be constructed in accordance with General Industry Safety and  
Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
(9) In dry kilns and facilities, a fixed ladder complying with the requirements  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as  
referenced in R 408.15209, or other adequate means, shall be provided to permit access  
to the roof. Where controls and machinery are mounted on the roof, a permanent  
stairway with standard handrail shall be installed in accordance with General Industry  
Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces”.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15223 Power control.  
Rule 5223. (1) A machine shall be equipped with an emergency stop device, red in  
color, which can be activated from the operator’s work station.  
(2) A machine attended by more than 1 operator shall be equipped with a control for  
each operator exposed to a point of operation hazard. These controls shall be interlocked  
to prevent operation until each operator activates his control.  
(3) A machine control shall be designed and installed to prevent unintentional  
activation by contact with objects or part of the body.  
(4) A written lockout procedure shall be established by an employer and used by an  
employee. A power source of any equipment to be repaired, serviced or set up shall be  
locked out by each employee while doing work. Any residual pressure shall be relieved  
prior to and during work.  
(5) Upon power failures, provisions shall be made to prevent machines from  
automatically restarting upon restoration of power.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15224 Hydraulic safety.  
Rule 5224. (1) A hydraulic system shall have a designed safety factor of not less  
than 4.  
(2) A hydraulic, air or steam line shall be bled before opening it for maintenance  
work.  
(3) Equipment supported by hydraulic, air or steam pressure shall be blocked or  
otherwise secured before maintenance work is begun.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 8  
R 408.15225 Chain, chain slings, and chain fittings.  
Rule 5225. (1) A chain and its component parts, other than alloy steel chain having a  
minimum tensile strength of 125,000 pounds per square inch, shall have a safety factor of  
not less than 5. Alloy chain shall not be used in excess of the working load in straight  
tension for its size as prescribed in table 1.  
(2) A chain used in load-carrying service shall be inspected before initial use and  
weekly thereafter. Chain with bent, twisted, or elongated links or hook that has been open  
more than 15% at the throat from the original set or twisted more than 10% from the  
plane of the unbent hook shall not be used until the defective part is replaced.  
(3) A bolt or nail shall not be used to shorten or join links together.  
(4) Installation, inspection, maintenance, repair, and testing of chains shall be done  
only by an employee qualified to do such work.  
(5) Proper storage shall be provided for slings while not in use.  
(6) If, at any time, any 3-foot length of chain is found to have stretched 1/3 the  
length of a link shall be discarded.  
(7) Table 1 reads as follows:  
Table 1  
Working load – Single chain  
Nominal Size,  
Chain Bar, In.  
Work Load,  
Lb. Max.  
1/4  
3,250  
3/8  
6,600  
1/2  
11,250  
16,500  
23,000  
28,500  
38,750  
44,500  
57,500  
67,000  
80,000  
100,000  
5/8  
3/4  
7/8  
1
1 1/8  
1 1/4  
1 3/8  
1 1/2  
1 3/4  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
Page 9  
R 408.15226 Cable, wire rope, and wire rope slings.  
Rule 5226. (1) Cable, wire rope, and wire rope slings shall have a designed safety  
factor of not less than 5.  
(2) Wire rope and cable in load-carrying or hoist service and their fittings shall be  
visually inspected when installed and once each day thereafter when in use.  
(3) Wire rope shall not be used if, within a segment of 8 diameters in length, the  
total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10% of the total number of wires or if the  
rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defects.  
(4) Wire rope and cable removed from service due to defects shall be plainly marked  
or identified as being unfit for further use on a crane, hoist, or other load-carrying device.  
(5) When U-type cable clips are applied, the U-type cable clips shall comply with  
figure 1.  
(6) Cable clips shall be spaced approximately 6 rope diameters apart.  
(7) Wire rope and cable shall be protected at sharp or tight bends by use of corner  
irons or blocks.  
(8) A safety hook shall be used where there is a hazard created if the tension on the  
hook can be relieved by fouling or catching.  
(9) Installation, inspection, maintenance, repair, and testing of ropes, cables, and  
slings shall be done only by persons qualified to do such work.  
(10) Proper storage shall be provided for a sling while not in use.  
(11) Connections, fittings, fastenings, and other parts used in connection with ropes  
and cables shall be of good quality and of proper size and strength and shall be installed  
in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.  
(12) Hooks, shackles, rings, pad eyes, and other fittings that show excessive wear or  
that have been bent, twisted, or otherwise damaged shall be removed from service.  
(13) Running lines of hoisting equipment located within 6 feet 6 inches of the  
ground or working level shall be boxed off or otherwise guarded or the operating area  
shall be restricted.  
(14) There shall be not less than 2 full wraps of hoisting cable from slipping off.  
(15) A drum shall have a flange at each end to prevent the cable from slipping off.  
(16) A bottom sheave shall be protected by a close-fitting guard to prevent the cable  
from jumping the sheave.  
(17) The reeving of a rope shall be so arranged as to minimize the chafing or  
abrading while in use.  
(18) Multiple-part lines shall not be twisted around each other. If there is a slack  
rope condition, the rope shall be properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves.  
(19) Knots shall not be allowed in a wire rope.  
(20) Figure 1 reads as follows:  
Page 10  
FIGURE 1  
NOTE: There is only 1 correct method of installing wire rope clips. Wire rope clips  
should be attached to rope ends as shown in photograph above. The base of each clip  
should bear against the live, or long rope end, and the U-bolt should bear against the  
dead or short rope end.  
NUMBER AND SPACING OF CLIPS  
FOR ROPES OF VARIOUS SIZES  
Length of rope  
Center-to-center  
Diameter  
rope (in.)  
of  
turned  
back  
Number of clips space between clips  
(in.)  
exclusive of eye  
(in.)  
1/4  
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
1 1/2  
1 7/8  
2 1/4  
2 5/8  
3
3
5/16  
3/8  
4
5
7/16  
1/2  
6
9
5/8  
3 3/4  
4 1/2  
5 1/4  
6
12  
18  
21  
24  
34  
38  
50  
54  
60  
74  
90  
96  
104  
3/4  
7/8  
1
1 1/8  
1 1/4  
1 3/8  
1 1/2  
1 5/8  
1 3/4  
1 7/8  
2
6 3/4  
7 1/2  
8 1/4  
9
9 3/4  
10 1/2  
11 1/4  
12  
2 1/8  
13  
Page 11  
2 1/4  
8
14  
112  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15227 Housekeeping.  
Rule 5227. (1) Chips, sawdust and other debris shall be removed from working  
areas to prevent an accumulation which would constitute a hazard.  
(2) Pipes, beams and other overhead objects in the operating area of a sawmill  
shall be cleaned off a minimum of once a month to remove dust accumulations.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15228 Pressure feed rolls.  
Rule 5228. Pressure feed rolls shall be guarded to prevent the hands of an operator  
when at his regular work station from coming in contact with the in-running rolls. A  
guard shall be made of a minimum of 14 gauge sheet metal or material of equivalent or  
greater strength.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15229 Bins, bunkers, hoppers, and fuel houses.  
Rule 5229. (1) An open bin, bunker, or hopper extending less than 36 inches above  
the working level shall be provided with a guardrail system as prescribed in General  
Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced  
in R 408.15209, or the opening shall be covered with a grating with openings small  
enough to prevent an employee from falling through.  
(2) Where wheeled equipment is used to move materials to a bin, bunker or hopper,  
a bumper stop shall be provided where the bin, bunker or hopper is at floor level. An  
employee shall be protected from the open side by a guardrail system installed along each  
side of the wheeled equipment runway.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15230 Fiber rope.  
Rule 5230. (1) Frozen fiber rope shall not be used in load carrying service.  
(2) Fiber rope that has been subjected to acid or excessive heat shall not be used  
for load carrying purposes.  
(3) Fiber rope shall be protected from abrasion by padding where it is fastened or  
drawn over square corners or sharp or rough surfaces.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 12  
SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT  
R 408.15231 Chippers and hogs.  
Rule 5231. (1) A whole log chipper or a hog shall have the feed system arranged so  
that an employee does not stand in direct line with the chipper hopper.  
(2) A guard shall be installed over the chipping or hog throat to prevent slab and  
wood particles from being discharged at an operator.  
(3) To prevent an employee from falling onto a chipper or hog belt-type, feed-in  
conveyor, the belt-type conveyor shall be guarded for the entire length of the conveyor by  
an enclosure or guardrail system as prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health  
Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
(4) A safety belt and lanyard shall be used by an employee when feeding at or near  
the hopper of a drop feed chipper or drop feed hog. The lanyard shall be adjusted to  
prevent an employee from falling into the chipper or hog.  
(5) A board chipper or hog shall have the feed spout enclosed not less than 40 inches  
from the blade to the opening or the operator shall wear a safety belt and lanyard. The  
lanyard shall be short enough to prevent any portion of the operator’s body from touching  
the blade.  
(6) Where jam-ups cannot be cleared with a stick, the in-feed equipment shall be  
stopped and locked out and the employee clearing the jam shall be provided with, and  
use, a safety belt and lanyard, as prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health  
Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.15209, which  
is adjusted to prevent contact with the chipper blade before additional cleaning is done.  
(7) A chipper on a head rig or edger shall be enclosed to protect the employee.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15232 Log deck.  
Rule 5232. (1) A log deck shall be provided with a stop or other safeguard to  
prevent logs from inadvertently advancing onto the carriage of its runway.  
(2) A barricade or other positive stop of such strength to hold back a log shall be  
erected between a log deck and a head sawyer.  
(3) Drag, swing, circular cutoff saws, and spiked rolls shall be so located and  
guarded to allow access to and from the building without endangering passing  
employees.  
(4) Loose chain from overhead equipment shall not hang over the log deck so as to  
be struck by an employee.  
(5) Logs shall be arranged in a manner to prevent their accidental falling or  
rolling from the deck.  
(6) Overhead protection shall be provided for an employee working below logs  
being moved to the log deck.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
Page 13  
R 408.15233 Debarkers.  
Rule 5233. (1) A debarker shall be guarded by an enclosure or by location so  
as to protect an employee from flying bark and other debris.  
The enclosure shall have a window between the operator and debarker of 3/8-  
inch plexiglass or material of equivalent or greater strength.  
(2) Hold-down rolls shall be used at the in-feed and out-feed sections of  
mechanical ring debarkers to control the movement of a log.  
(3) Where an elevating ramp or gate is used, a means such as a chain or blocking  
shall be used to insure its suspension when an employee is required to work under  
it.  
(4) A bumper pillar or post of adequate strength to contain a log when passing  
through a stationary debarker head shall be in place.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15234 Sawmill carriages.  
Rule 5234. (1) A stop or bumper with shock-absorptive qualities shall be installed  
at the ends of a carriage runway to prevent its leaving the track limits.  
(2) Dogs shall hold a log, cant, or board in such manner that the log, cant, or  
board cannot escape from the carriage. Safeguards shall be installed to insure that if  
the electrical power fails, the pressure of the dog on the log will not release a log until  
the headsaw has stopped.  
(3) A carriage track sweeping device shall be used to keep track rails clear of  
debris.  
(4) A barrier shall be provided to prevent the entry of employees in the carriage  
travel area during sawing operations.  
(5) When a sawyer leaves the operating station, the carriage controls shall be  
placed and held in the off position by a mechanical device.  
(6) When a powered carriage is returned to the end of the runway for  
maintenance work, a device shall be provided to prevent movement of the carriage.  
(7) A means of egress shall be provided from the operator's station.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15241 Head band saws and band resaws.  
Rule 5241. (1) A head band saw and band resaw shall not be operated at a speed in  
excess of the manufacturer's rating. The rating shall be permanently marked on the  
wheel.  
(2) A band saw blade shall not be used if it has a crack greater than 1/10 of the  
blade width.  
(3) A head band saw and band resaw shall be inspected monthly for defects  
which would affect their safe operation. A head band saw and band resaw shall not be  
used if a wheel has a loose hub, loose spokes, or a cracked rim. A head band saw  
and band resaw shall have both wheels enclosed, except for that portion where the  
Page 14  
blade leaves and returns to the wheel. Materials used to enclose the wheels shall be  
not less than 14-gauge sheet metal or material of equivalent or greater strength.  
(4) A head band saw shall be provided with a saw catcher constructed to catch a  
runaway blade.  
(5) An operator work station for a head band saw shall have an enclosure on not less  
than 3 sides, not including the back, to protect the operator from flying debris. Above  
this enclosure there shall be  
a
piece of 3/8-inch plexiglass or material of  
equivalent or greater strength and of such height between the sawyer and the saw  
blade to protect the sawyer from flying objects.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15242 Circular head saw.  
Rule 5242. (1) A circular headsaw shall not be operated at a speed in excess of  
the manufacturer's rating, which shall be etched on the blade. A circular headsaw shall  
be equipped with guides to prevent blade wobble.  
(2) Horizontal distance from a circular headsaw blade to the nearest vertical  
husk part shall be at least 1 inch greater than the distance from the blade collar to the tip  
of the blade.  
(3) Behind a circular head saw blade, the saw shall be equipped with a spreader  
wheel or a splitter.  
(4) A splitter shall be constructed of tempered steel or its equivalent and shall not  
be thinner than the saw kerf.  
(5) The work station of an off-bearer shall be constructed to prevent the off-  
bearer from working closer than 42 inches from the saw blade.  
(6) The work station of the operator of a circular saw shall be enclosed as prescribed  
in R 408.15241(5).  
(7) If a circular headsaw has setworks that are manually operated or a carriage  
that is manually loaded, both of the following provisions shall be complied with:  
(a) A barricade or other positive stop of such strength to hold back a log shall be  
erected between the log deck and the sawyer.  
(b) The guard required at the sawyer station shall be a shield which is 36 inches  
high and which is between the operator and the saw with an extension of 3/8-inch  
plexiglass or material of equivalent strength of such height and width to protect the  
sawyer from flying objects.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15243 Double circular head saw.  
Rule 5243. A double circular head saw shall comply with R 408.15242 and in  
addition, have a movable guard or hood made of a minimum of 14 gauge sheet metal or  
material of equivalent or greater strength over the upper blade.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
Page 15  
R 408.15244 Self-feed circular gang saws.  
Rule 5244. (1) A bank of circular gang saws and their feed rolls, if so equipped,  
shall be enclosed by a cover over the top, front, and open ends, except where guarded by  
location. A drive mechanism to feed rolls shall be enclosed. The cover shall be made of a  
minimum of 14 gauge sheet metal, or material of equivalent or greater strength, and the  
bottom of the cover shall come within 3/8 inch of the plane formed by the bottom of the  
working surfaces of the feed rolls.  
(2) A circular gang saw shall be equipped with an anti-kickback device. A circular  
gang saw shall be equipped with a live roll or other tailing device on the off side or shall  
be provided with a splitter as prescribed in R 408.15242(4).  
(3) The carriage cradle of a whole log sash gang saw shall be of such height as to  
prevent a log from kicking out while being loaded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15245 Trimmer saw.  
Rule 5245. (1) A trimmer saw shall be guarded by a barrier made of 11 gauge  
metal, or material of equivalent or greater strength, to contain the trimmings flying  
from the point of operation and to prevent an employee from coming in contact with  
any saw blade on the trimmer. The barrier shall be securely bolted to a substantial  
frame. This guard for a series of saws shall be set as close to the top of the  
trimmer table as practical.  
(2) An automatic trimmer saw shall be provided with a safety stop or hanger to  
prevent saws from dropping on the table.  
(3) The rear of a trimmer saw shall have a guard the full width of the saws and as  
much wider as practical.  
(4) A trimmer saw shall not be run at peripheral speeds in excess of those  
recommended by the manufacturer.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15246 Edger saws.  
Rule 5246. (1) An edger shall not be located in the main roll case behind the  
headsaw. Edger saw blades shall be guarded against unintentional contact.  
(2) A control device shall be installed and located so that the operator can stop the  
pressure feed rolls without releasing their tension.  
(3) An edger shall be equipped with both of the following:  
(a) Anti-kickback fingers designed to provide holding power for all thicknesses  
of material being cut.  
(b) Live rolls or other tailing device on the off side of the headsaw, which is so  
guarded that an employee cannot contact any part of the edger saw from his or her  
work station.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
Page 16  
R 408.15247 Bolt, cant, or slat saw.  
Rule 5247. (1) A bolt, cant, or slat saw shall have the point of operation guarded or  
the work stations of the tailer and operation shall be constructed to prevent the tailer or  
operator from working closer than 42 inches from the saw blade.  
(2) A feeding mechanism, such as powered live rolls or carriage, shall be used to  
feed materials through a bolt, cant, or slat saw.  
(3) A saw shall be equipped with a spreader wheel or a splitter when behind a bolt,  
cant, or slat saw blade.  
(4) The blade of a bolt, cant, or slat saw shall be guarded to cover the top and both  
sides. Hangdown deflectors of 3/8-inch plexiglass or equivalent protection shall be  
installed on the in-feed end and extend to the top of the saw blade. See figure 2.  
(5) Figure 2 reads as follows:  
Figure 2  
Blade Guard (Bolt, cant, or slat saw)  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15251 Woodworking machines.  
Rule 5251. An employer using machines and equipment more commonly found in a  
woodworking shop, including but not limited to, jointers, planers, mitre saws and swing  
cutoff saws, shall follow the General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 27  
“Woodworking Machinery,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
Page 17  
R 408.15252 Kilns.  
Rule 5252. (1) A kiln door shall have a device to hold it open during a loading or  
unloading cycle. A counterweight for the kiln door shall be guarded as prescribed in  
General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards and Power Transmission,” as referenced  
in R 408.15209. Installation of a kiln door shall be such that it will not topple if it  
becomes disengaged from the carriers or hangers.  
(2) If procedures require access to a kiln, then either of the following applies:  
(a) The kiln shall be provided with an escape hatch that opens from the inside,  
swings with the direction of travel, and is located in or near the main kiln door.  
(b) A passageway shall be provided on not less than 1 side or in the center of an end  
piled kiln, or on 2 sides of a cross piled kiln.  
(3) A steam line less than 7 feet from the floor and in or by a walkway shall be  
covered with an insulating material or protected by a barrier.  
(4) A kiln car shall be blocked by chocks to prevent unintentional movement.  
(5) A kiln shall be constructed on a foundation capable of preventing the sagging of  
the racks.  
(6) Where a pit is provided, it shall be ventilated, drained, and lighted and large  
enough to give the operator safe working space with operating devices such as valves,  
dampers, damper rods, and traps.  
(7) A warm room shall be provided for kiln employees to stay in during cold  
weather after leaving a hot kiln.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15253 Storage and transfer of lumber.  
Rule 5253. (1) Lumber shall be stacked on foundations constructed to support  
the maximum load without sinking, sagging or permitting the pile to topple. A pile of  
lumber which is not stable shall be restacked at once or the area guarded by a barrier.  
(2) Long packages of lumber shall not be placed on short packages except where a  
stable pile can be made by use of package separators.  
(3) Where necessary to insure stability, a package of lumber shall be provided  
stickers. A sticker shall extend to within 2 inches, plus or minus, of the full width of  
the package. Stickers shall be aligned 1 above the other.  
(4) A load of lumber shall be built and secured to insure stability during transit.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15254 Stackers and unstackers.  
Rule 5254. (1) A stacker or unstacker shall be blocked whenever an employee goes  
beneath the hoisting platform.  
(2) The lifting device on a stacker or unstacker shall be constructed or equipped with  
safety devices to minimize the potential of lumber falling.  
(3) Guarding of a stacker hoistway openings and lower landing shall be pursuant to  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as  
referenced in R 408.15209.  
Page 18  
(4) Where an operator has no clear view of the discharge path from a stacker, or in  
case of a discharge path of an automatic stacker, a barrier guard shall be provided to  
prevent an employee from entering the discharge path. In either case, a warning device  
shall be installed to alert an employee of the hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15256 Cleaning pits.  
Rule 5256. An employer shall provide safe means of entrance and exit to permit  
cleaning of pits.  
History: 2014 AACS.  
PALLET EQUIPMENT  
R 408.15261 Nailers.  
Rule 5261. (1) A hand-held, power operated nailer or stapler shall be equipped and  
maintained with a safety switch at the point of operation as well as a finger control  
switch.  
(2) An automatic nailer or stapler shall have the point of operation guarded or  
enclosed to within 1/4 inch of the material.  
(3) Where a nailer or stapler has more than 1 operator, each operator shall be  
supplied with a control which shall be activated concurrently or the machine will not  
operate.  
(4) A foot control shall be provided with a cover or guard to prevent accidental  
activation. The construction of the cover or guard shall be as prescribed in General  
Industry Safety Standard Part 23 “Hydraulic Power Presses,” as referenced in  
R 408.15209.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15262 Pallet notchers.  
Rule 5262. A pallet notcher shall be equipped with a hood designed to contain  
flying pieces and chips and controls to prevent the hands of the operator from entering  
the point of operation. A method of feeding shall be provided to prevent kickbacks.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
LOG AND MATERIAL HANDLING AND STORAGE  
Page 19  
R 408.15271 Hauling trucks, egress, and pickup points.  
Rule 5271. (1) A truck used to haul lumber or logs shall have a bulkhead extending to  
the top of the operator's compartment and capable of containing the movement of the  
load caused by a sudden stop.  
(2) Stakes, stake pockets, binders, and tighteners shall be provided on the truck to  
secure the load against movement. Where rollers are provided, not less than 2 shall be  
equipped with locks which shall be locked during transit.  
(3) An area of restricted width or height shall be posted with a warning sign.  
(4) Where accurate spotting is required to load and unload packages of lumber, those  
points shall be marked and wheel stop provided.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15272 Securing of truck loads.  
Rule 5272. (1) A trip stake shall be released from the side of the truck or trailer  
opposite the location of the trip stake.  
(2) When the entire load of logs are unloaded by a device or sling from a truck or  
trailer, in a single operation, the following shall apply:  
(a) A binder shall not be released until the unloading lines or other unloading  
device secures the load.  
(b) Binders shall be released only from the side on which the unloader operates,  
except when released by remote control devices or except when the person making  
the release is protected by racks or stanchions or other equivalent means.  
(c) When a binder is fouled by the unloader, the load shall be secured by an extra  
binder of equivalent strength or otherwise secured until the fouled binder is  
removed.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15273 Log and material handling equipment.  
Rule 5273. (1) Equipment used for handling logs and material shall be equipped  
with a braking system capable of holding the imposed load of equipment and material.  
(2) A hydraulic system of log and material handling equipment shall be equipped  
with a valve capable of preventing uncontrolled descent of the load in case of failure of  
the system.  
(3) Log and material handling equipment shall be equipped with a limit switch to  
prevent over-travel of the lift arms if the control device is not released in time.  
(4) When a forklift-type handling machine is used, a means shall be used to secure a  
loading attachment to the forks.  
(5) Where log and material handling mobile equipment lifts the load higher than the  
operator’s head, overhead protection shall be provided not less than equivalent to that  
prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 21 “Powered Industrial  
Trucks,” as referenced in R 408.15209.  
(6) Mobile log and material handling mobile equipment shall be equipped with head  
and rear running lights when used during periods of darkness.  
Page 20  
(7) Unloading devices shall have their movements coordinated by audible or hand  
signals when the operator’s vision is obstructed or when operating near another  
employee.  
(8) Wood pike poles shall be straight-grained, select material. Defective or blunt  
poles shall not be used. A handle for a pike pole used near conductors shall be of an  
insulating type material.  
(9) An ungrounded electrically powered hoist operated by a handheld remote control  
at grounded locations, such as a log dump or a mill log lift, shall be actuated by not more  
than 50 volts to ground.  
(10) Where the operator is exposed to a hazard from backing a vehicle into objects,  
an approved platform guard shall be provided and so arranged as to not impede the  
exiting of the driver from the vehicle.  
(11) All vehicles shall be equipped with audible warning signals and backup alarm  
and, where practicable, shall have spark arrestors.  
(12) Carriers shall be designed and constructed so that the operator’s field of vision  
is not unnecessarily restricted. Carriers shall be provided with an access ladder or  
equivalent.  
(13) Railroad tracks and other hazardous crossings shall be plainly posted.  
(14) Periodic inspection of cable or dogging lines shall be made to determine when  
repair or removal from service is necessary.  
(15) A vehicle shall not be operated with a load exceeding its safe load capacity.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15274 Log unloading and storage, general.  
Rule 5274. (1) A log unloading area and road beds will be arranged and  
maintained to allow a safe operation.  
(2) Signs prohibited unauthorized foot traffic shall be posted in the log unloading  
and storage area.  
(3) A brow log or equivalent shall be provided at a water log dump to prevent  
overrun of mobile equipment.  
(4) Where skids are used, space adequate to clear an employee's body shall be  
maintained between the top of the skids and the ground.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS.  
R 408.15275 Water log dumps.  
Rule 5275 (1) Ungrounded electrically powered hoists using handheld remote  
control in grounded locations, such as log dumps or mill log lifts, shall be actuated by  
circuits operating at less than 50 volts to ground.  
(2) Roadbeds at log dumps shall be of sufficient width and evenness to ensure safe  
operation of equipment.  
(3) An adequate brow log or skid timbers or the equivalent shall be provided where  
necessary. Railroad-type dumps, when located where logs are dumped directly into water  
Page 21  
or where entire loads are lifted from a vehicle, may be exempted providing such practice  
does not create a hazardous exposure of personnel or equipment.  
(4) Unloading lines shall be arranged so that it is not necessary for the employees to  
attach them from the pond or dump side of the load except when entire loads are lifted  
from the log-transporting vehicle.  
(5) Unloading lines, crotch lines, or equally effective means shall be arranged and  
used in a manner to minimize the possibility of any log from swinging or rolling back.  
(6) When logs are unloaded with peavys or similar manual methods, means shall be  
provided and used that will minimize the danger from rolling or swinging logs.  
(7) Guardrails, walkways, and standard handrails shall be installed as prescribed in  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as  
referenced in R 408.15209.  
(8) An employer shall provide approved life rings with line attached and maintained  
to retain buoyancy.  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.15276 Dry deck storage.  
Rule 5276. (1) A dry deck storage area shall be maintained in a condition to  
allow safe operation of mobile equipment.  
(2) Logs shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner. Logs shall be piled in the  
yard and arranged on the deck in a manner to prevent rolling.  
(3) Roadways shall be maintained at such width that log and material handling  
equipment can move without creating a hazard to employees.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.15277 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.15280 Air requirements.  
Rule 5280. (1) Ventilation shall be provided to supply adequate fresh healthful air to  
rooms, buildings, and work areas.  
(2) Employees shall not be exposed to airborne concentration of toxic dusts, fumes,  
vapors, mists, or gases that exceed the threshold limit values in Occupational Health  
Standard Part 301 “Air Contaminants for General Industry,” as referenced in  
R 408.15209.  
History: 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15282 Blower, collecting, and exhaust systems.  
Page 22  
Rule 5282. (1) Blower, collecting, and exhaust systems shall be designed,  
constructed, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 91 “Blower and Exhaust Systems  
for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying,” 1961 edition, as adopted in  
R 408.15209.  
(2) All mills containing 1 or more machines that create dust, shavings, chips, or  
slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than 1/4 of the working day, shall be  
equipped with a collecting system. The collection system may be either continuous or  
automatic, and shall be of sufficient strength and capacity to enable it to remove such  
refuse from points of operation and immediate vicinities of machines and work areas.  
(3) Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be  
equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the  
maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.  
(4) Exhaust pipes shall not discharge into an unconfined outside pile if uncontrolled  
fire or explosion hazards are created. The exhaust pipes may empty into settling or dust  
chambers designed to prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area. The  
chambers shall be constructed and operated to minimize the danger of fire or dust  
explosion.  
History: 2014 AACS.  
R 408.15284 Pond boats and rafts.  
Rule 5284. (1) Pond boats and rafts shall comply with the provisions of NFPA 302  
“Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial Motor Craft,” 1968 edition, as  
adopted in R 408.15209.  
(2) Decks of pond boats shall be covered with nonslip material.  
(3) Powered pond boats or rafts shall be provided with at least 1 approved fire  
extinguisher, and 1 life ring with line attached.  
(4) Boat fuel shall be transported and stored in approved safety containers such as  
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc..  
(5) An employer shall provide inspection, maintenance, and ventilation of the bilge  
area to prevent accumulation of highly combustible materials.  
(6) An employer shall provide adequate ventilation for the cabin area on enclosed  
cabin-type boats to prevent accumulation of harmful gases or vapors.  
History: 2014 AACS.  
Page 23