DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of 1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and  
Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL  
445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 27. WOODWORKING MACHINERY  
GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.12701 Scope.  
Rule 2701. This standard establishes standards for the safe installation, operation  
and maintenance of woodworking machinery and equipment, including the making of  
veneer. This standard applies to point of operation hazards on woodworking machinery.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12702. Referenced MIOSHA standards.  
Rule 2702. The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administrative  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or via the internet at website:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time of  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2 “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 ‘Guards for Power Transmission,’  
R 408.10701 to R 408.10765.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12705 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 2705. (1) "Aisle" means a path of travel for vehicles and employees.  
(2) "Band saw" means a machine equipped with a lower and an upper wheel on  
which a continuous blade rides and past which the material is pushed.  
(3) "Block" means a short block of wood, provided with a handle similar to that of a  
plane and a shoulder at the rear end and used for pushing stock over revolving cutters.  
(4) "Circular saw" means a machine with a table to support the material and with a  
circular blade and used for ripping, cross-cutting dadoing and rabbeting.  
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(5) "Combination or universal machine" means a machine combining several  
operations, including but not limited to sawing, jointing and drilling.  
(6) "Cutter head" means a powered holder for a cutting blade.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12706 Definitions; D to J.  
Rule 2706. (1) "Drag saw" means a chain saw on which an end of the chain arm is  
held at a fixed point with the opposite end moving in an arc downward through a log.  
(2) "Guillotine veneer cutter" means a machine with a blade which cuts veneer by  
moving downward through the material, similar to a metal shear.  
(3) "Interlocked barrier" means a guard attached to a machine and interlocked so  
that if the guard is not in place the machine will not start or, if running, the power will  
be cut off.  
(4) "Inverted cut-off, jump saw" or "underslung saw" means a machine similar to  
a circular saw except the blade moves through stationary material.  
(5) "Jointer" means a machine with a revolving cutter head set into an adjustable  
table over which the material is moved over the cutter head.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12707 Definitions; M to P.  
Rule 2707. (1) "Molding or sticker machine" means a machine equipped with  
revolving cutter heads and used to cut irregular contours on straight strips of wood.  
(2) "Mortiser" means a boring machine used to cut square or rectangular holes.  
(3) "Planer" means a machine with a revolving cutter head set above an adjustable  
table on which material is passed under the cutter head by powered rollers.  
(4) "Point of operation" means the area of a machine where material is actually  
worked.  
(5) "Profile or swing head lathe" means a machine with multiple fixed knives  
suspended from a carriage over revolving stock which shapes the stock to a  
predetermined design.  
(6) "Push stick" means a narrow strip of wood or other soft material with a notch  
or sharp point on 1 end which is used to push material through a point of operation.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12708 Definitions; R to T.  
Rule 2708. (1) "Radial saw" means a machine with a circular blade suspended  
from a horizontal arm which is pulled through the material.  
(2) "Revolving tool lathe" means a lathe where revolving multiple cutters shape  
cut revolving stock held between 2 points.  
(3) "Router" means a machine with a revolving vertical cutter and a motor  
suspended over a table and used to cut to a predetermined design.  
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(4) "Run" means the distance from pulley to pulley.  
(5) "Swing saw" means a machine suspended above a table and equipped with a  
circular blade which swings forward from an overhead pivot point.  
(6) "Tenoner" means a machine equipped with horizontal and vertical circular  
blades to cut tenons and perform trimming operations.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12709 Definitions; V, W.  
Rule 2709. (1) "Veneer clipper" means a machine which cuts multiple layers of  
veneer to predetermined sizes.  
(2) "Veneer jointer" means a machine which machines the edges of veneer.  
(3) "Veneer rotary lathe" means a machine which peels thin pieces of veneer from  
a log as it revolves past a blade.  
(4) "Veneer slicer" means a machine which cuts thin pieces of veneer from a log  
by moving a vertical blade against the log.  
(5) "Veneer splicer" means a machine which glues veneer along the edges to make a  
larger piece.  
(6) "Walkway" means a path of travel for foot traffic only.  
History: 1979 AC.  
PLANT LAYOUT  
R 408.12711 Plant layout; machinery.  
Rule 2711. (1) A machine shall be located to allow space in which to handle  
material without interference from or to employees or machines. A machine shall not be  
so placed to require the operator to stand in an aisle unless protection is provided.  
(2) A machine shall be secured to a floor, foundation, bench, table or stand of  
sufficient strength and design to prevent overturning or unintentional movement. This  
subrule does not apply to portable hand tools.  
(3) A machine shall be located so that light of 50 foot-candle power minimum  
intensity from both natural and artificial light falls on the work. Supplementary  
illumination at the point of operation shall be provided where necessary.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12712 Plant layout; floors and aisles.  
Rule 2712. (1) An aisle for powered traffic moving in 1 direction at a time shall be  
not less than the width of the widest vehicle or load plus 3 feet.  
(2) An aisle for powered traffic moving in 2 directions at a time shall be not less  
than twice the width of the widest vehicle or load plus 3 feet.  
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(3) Lines shall be painted on the floor, or a similar method may be used to mark an  
aisle.  
(4) This rule applies to an aisle in a new layout after November 15, 1971.  
(5) An existing aisle shall comply with this rule by January 1, 1973.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT  
R 408.12714 Machines and equipment; construction.  
Rule 2714.(1) The height of the table or working surface of a machine, auxiliary  
table, and supports shall be designed to provide for safety of the operator. An auxiliary  
table or supports shall be provided so that large or unwieldy pieces can be handled safely.  
(2) The vibration of a machine shall not create a hazard to the operator.  
(3) An arbor and mandrel shall have a firm and secure bearing.  
(4) The frames and all exposed metal parts of electric woodworking machinery shall  
be grounded. A portable motor driving an electric tool shall be grounded unless it has  
approved double insulation.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12715 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS.  
R 408.12716. Machines and equipment; controls.  
Rule 2716. (1) A machine shall have a mechanical or electrical power control to  
permit the operator to cut off the power from the machine without leaving his or her  
position at the work station.  
(2) A woodworking machine shall not automatically restart upon restoration of  
power after a power failure. A machine wired to a 110 volt line before November 15,  
1971, is excepted from this rule.  
(3) Operating controls shall be located within reach of the operator while the  
operator is at his or her regular work station, making it unnecessary to reach over the  
cutters. The controls shall be installed to eliminate the danger of accidental activation.  
This subrule does not apply to a constant pressure control used only for setup purposes.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12717 Machines and equipment; self-feed.  
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Rule 2717. Automatic feeding devices on a machine should be installed where the  
nature of the work will permit. The feed rolls or other moving parts on a feeder  
attachment shall be covered or guarded to protect the operator from in-running nip points.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
SAWS  
R 408.12718 Saws generally.  
Rule 2718. (1) A cut-off saw that strokes automatically without the operator's  
control of each stroke shall have a guard to keep the operator's hands from coming  
in contact with a blade.  
(2) An automatic cut-off saw that strokes continuously without the operator  
being able to control each stroke shall not be used.  
(3) To avoid overspeed caused by mounting a saw larger than intended, lugs shall  
be cast on saw frame or tables or another means shall be provided to limit the saw  
blade size that can be mounted.  
(4) A circular saw fence shall be firmly secured to the table or table assembly  
without changing its alignment with the saw. For a saw with a tilting table or tilting  
arbor, the fence shall remain in alignment with the saw, regardless of the angle of the  
saw with the table.  
(5) To insure exact alignment with the saw for all positions of the gauge, a  
circular saw gauge shall slide in grooves or tracks which are accurately machined.  
(6) A hinged saw table in use shall be firmly secured in position and in true  
alignment with the saw.  
History: 1979 AC; 1981 AACS.  
R 408.12719 Saws; speeds.  
Rule 2719. (1) The operating speed as designated by the manufacturer shall be  
etched or otherwise permanently marked on a circular saw blade more than 20 inches in  
diameter. A saw blade shall not be operated at a higher speed than shown on the blade.  
(2) When a marked saw blade is re-tensioned for a different speed, the marking shall  
be corrected to show the new speed.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12720 Cracked blades.  
Rule 2720. A cracked circular saw blade shall not be repaired or used.  
History: 1979 AC.  
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R 408.12721 Saws; circular.  
Rule 2721. The exposed part of a saw blade either beneath or behind a table shall  
be covered with an exhaust hood. If an exhaust system is not required, the exposed part  
shall be covered with a guard arranged to prevent accidental contact with the saw.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12722 Circular saw guards.  
Rule 2722. (1) A circular saw shall have a hood-type guard covering the blade at all  
times when not in use.  
(2) When in use, the hood type guard shall enclose that part of the blade above  
the table and that part of the blade above the material by adjusting automatically to the  
thickness of the material being cut, or it may be a fixed or manually adjusted hood type  
guard if the hood remains in contact with the material.  
(3) A hood type guard shall be made of 14 gauge metal or thicker.  
Plastic may be used if it can resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable  
operation, adjusting and handling and is designed to protect the operator from flying  
splinters and broken saw teeth.  
(4) The guard shall be made of material soft enough so that it will be unlikely to  
cause tooth breakage.  
(5) The hood shall be mounted so that its operation will be positive, reliable and in  
true alignment with the saw. The mounting shall be of sufficient strength to resist any  
reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.  
(6) Where a hood type guard cannot be used because of unusual shapes or cuts, a jig  
or fixture providing equal safety of the operator shall be used. On the completion of  
these operations, the guard shall be replaced immediately.  
(7) A push stick shall be used in cutting short or narrow stock.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12723 Circular saw spreaders.  
Rule 2723. A hand fed circular rip saw shall have a spreader to prevent material  
from squeezing the saw or being thrown back at the operator. The spreader shall be made  
of steel, or its equivalent, and shall be thinner than the saw kerf and slightly thicker than  
the saw disk. It shall be at least 1 inch wide at the table to provide adequate stiffness or  
rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow tending to bend or throw it out of  
position. The spreader shall be attached so it will remain in true alignment with the saw  
even when either the saw or table is tilted. It should be placed so there is not more than  
1/2 inch space between the spreader and the back of the saw when the largest saw is  
mounted in the machine. If a blade smaller than maximum permissible size is used,  
the spreader shall be moved to within 1/2 inch of the blade. A spreader need not be used  
in connection with grooving, dadoing or rabbeting. On the completion of such  
operations, the spreader shall be replaced immediately.  
History: 1979 AC.  
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R 408.12724 Non-kickback fingers or dogs.  
Rule 2724. A hand fed circular rip saw shall have non-kickback fingers or dogs  
located to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it  
back at the operator. Non-kickback fingers or dogs shall be designed to provide holding  
power for all the thicknesses of material being cut.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12725 Multiple arbor saw guards.  
Rule 2725. Revolving multiple arbor saws shall be fully guarded in accordance  
with R 408.12722.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.12726 Circular re-saw guards.  
Rule 2726. (1) A circular re-saw shall be guarded by a hood type guard or shield of  
metal above the saw. This guard or shield shall comply with R 408.12722.  
(2) Each circular re-saw, except self-feed saws with a roller or wheel at back of the  
saw, shall have a spreader fastened securely behind the saw. The spreader shall be  
thinner than the saw kerf and slightly thicker than the saw disk.  
History: 1979 AC; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12727 Self-fed circular saw hoods.  
Rule 2727.(1) In addition to guards over blades, as specified in R 408.12722, feed  
rolls on a self-feed circular saw shall be protected by a hood or guard to prevent the  
hands of the operator from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The  
guard shall be constructed of not less than 14-gauge sheet metal or the equivalent, and the  
bottom of the guard shall come down to within 3/8-inch of the plane formed by the  
bottom of working surfaces or the feed rolls. This distance may be increased to 3/4-inch  
if the lead edge of the hood is extended to not less than 5 1/2-inches in front of the nip  
point between the front roll and the work.  
(2) A self-feed circular rip saw shall have sectional non-kickback fingers along the  
full width of the feed rolls. They shall be located in front of the saw and arranged to be in  
continual contact with the wood being fed.  
History: 1979 AC; 1981 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12728 Swing and sliding cut-off saws.  
Rule 2728.(1) Swing and sliding cut-off saws or any other saw mounted above the  
table, except radial saws, shall have a hood-type guard designed so the upper half of the  
blade, arbor, and nut will be covered at all times. A hood-type guard or a device shall  
cover the lower half of the blade. It shall automatically adjust to the thickness of the  
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stock. It shall remain in contact with the stock or table as it moves forward to cut or  
returns to the back of the table. It shall be constructed of not less than 14 gauge sheet  
metal or equivalent material and designed to protect the operator from flying splinters  
and broken saw teeth.  
(2) Where the saw is used by employees for production-type repetitive cuts and the  
upper portion of the blade, including the saw arbor, is completely enclosed, in lieu of the  
self-adjusting lower blade guard required by subrule (1) of this rule, a swing saw shall be  
guarded by 1 of the following methods:  
(a) A box-type guard as prescribed in Figure 1.  
(b) A fixed or adjustable barrier guard which protects the operator from  
inadvertently coming in contact with the saw teeth of the bottom portion, from the front  
or sides, of the blade.  
(c) A self-adjusting guard as prescribed in Figure 1A or 1B that will prevent  
employee exposure to the front of the saw blade by dropping onto the work piece before  
the blade starts the cut and remains in contact with the work piece until the saw is  
returned to the back of the table.  
(3) A swing cut-off saw shall have an effective device to return the saw  
automatically to the back of the table when released at any point in its travel. The device  
shall not depend upon any rope, cord, or spring for its proper functioning. A device shall  
be installed which prevents a rebound of the saw blade. If there is a counterweight, bolts  
supporting the bar and counterweight shall have cotter pins and the counterweight shall  
be prevented from dropping by a bolt passing through both the bar and counterweight or  
a bolt put through the extreme end of the bar, or where the counterweight does not  
encircle the bar, a safety chain attached to it. If the counterweight is exposed to contact, it  
shall be enclosed by a guard to the floor area guard that will hold twice the weight of the  
counterweight.  
(4) A swing cut-off saw shall have limit chains or other equally effective devices to  
prevent the saw from swinging beyond the front or back edges of the table, or beyond a  
forward position where the gullets of the lowest saw teeth will rise above the table top.  
(5) A sliding cut-off saw may have the lower half of the blade guarded as prescribed  
in Figure 1C in a manner that will restrict employee exposure to the front of the teeth by  
the guard dropping onto the work piece before the teeth start the cut and remaining in  
contact with the work piece until the saw is returned to the back of the table or is adjusted  
to remain within 3/8 inch of the work piece at all times.  
(6) Instead of the self-adjusting lower blade guard required by subrule (5) of this  
rule, the saw may be stroked by use of constant pressure controls located so that the  
operator cannot reach the saw blade. When the saw blade has been returned to its  
rearmost position, a lower enclosure or guard shall be provided to restrict inadvertent  
contact.  
(7) Figures 1, 1A, 1B, and 1C read as follows:  
FIGURES 1, 1A, 1B, 1C  
SWING SAW GUARDING  
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FIGURE 1  
FOR SWING SAW ONLY  
A = Must be twice the ‘C’ dimensions, min. 6”  
B = 3/8” max.  
C = Open, depends on stock thickness  
D = 3/8” max.  
E = 1/4" max. on each side of black  
FIGURE 1A  
SWING SAW HOOD  
Page 9  
FIGURE 1B  
FIGURE 1C  
SLIDE CUT OFF SAW GUARDING  
History: 1979 AC; 1983 AACS; 2018 AACS.  
R 408.12729 Inverted swing cut-off; jump saws; underslung saws.  
Rule 2729. A hood type guard shall be securely fastened to the table that will  
cover the blade when running idle. The hood or guard shall extend not less than 2  
inches in front of the saw teeth when the blade is in back position. A traveling guard  
shall move with the blade over the material and cover the exposed part of the blade  
above the material. The width of the hood shall be limited to provide not more than  
1/4 inch clearance on each side of the blade.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 10  
R 408.12730 Radial saws.  
Rule 2730. (1) The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the  
blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood shall be  
constructed of not less than 14 gauge minimum sheet metal or equivalent material that  
will protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth and will deflect  
sawdust away from the operator. The teeth of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall  
be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust  
itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with the stock being cut to give  
maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.  
(2) In place of the requirements in subrule (1) of this rule, which require that the  
sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade be guarded by a device that will  
automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock being cut to give maximum  
protection possible for the operation being performed, both of the following apply:  
(a) The employer is not required to provide an automatically adjusting guard on that  
side of the lower exposed portion of the blade where the distance between the stock and  
the upper hood guard is less than 3/8 of an inch (lower side) for angle, bevel, or  
compound level cuts.  
(b) The employer may provide a specifically designed jig or fixture to protect the  
lower exposed portion of the blade in all cases where the distance between the stock and  
the upper hood guard exceed 3/8 of an inch (lower side) for angle, bevel, or compound  
bevel cuts. This specially designed jig or fixture shall provide protection for the operator  
which is equal to or greater than the protection required by subrule (1) of this rule.  
(3) A box-type guard as prescribed in Figure 2 or a permanently mounted guard as  
prescribed in Figure 3 or other fixed or adjustable barrier guard that restricts employee  
exposure to the saw teeth may be used to protect the operator from inadvertently coming  
in contact with the teeth of the bottom portion, from the front or sides, of the blade in lieu  
of the self-adjusting lower blade guard if the upper portion of the blade, including the saw  
arbor, is completely enclosed.  
(4) When radial saws are used for ripping, a spreader should be provided to comply  
with R 408.12723.  
(5) Non-kickback fingers or dogs shall be located on both sides of each radial saw  
used for ripping to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or  
throw it back toward the operator. They shall be designed to provide adequate holding  
power for all the thickness of material being cut.  
(6) An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade  
beyond the position necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations. A limit chain  
or other equally effective device shall be provided to prevent the saw blade from sliding  
beyond the edge of the table or the table at that place shall be extended to eliminate  
overrun. The front end of the unit shall be slightly higher than the rear or shall meet the  
requirements of R 408.12728(3), so as to cause the cutting head to return gently to the  
starting position when released by the operator. The slope shall not be enough to cause  
rebound.  
(7) Ripping and ploughing shall be against the direction in which the saw turns. The  
direction of the saw rotation shall be conspicuously marked on the hood. In addition, a  
permanent label colored standard danger red that is not less than 1-1/2 inches by 3/4 of an  
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