DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY  
DIVISION OF WATER AND RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION  
GROUNDWATER QUALITY CONTROL  
(By authority conferred on the director of public health by section 18 of Act No. 294  
of the Public Acts of 1965, section 7 of Act No. 146 of the Public Acts of 1919, and  
sections 9 and 427 of Act No. 380 of the Public Acts of 1965, being §§325.238, 325.7,  
16.109, and 16.527 of the Michigan Compiled Laws)  
PART 1. WELL CONSTRUCTION CODE  
R 325.1601 Definitions; A.  
Rule 101. (1) "Abandoned water well" means any of the following:  
(a) A well which has its use permanently discontinued.  
(b) A well which is in such disrepair that its continued use for the purpose of  
obtaining groundwater is impractical.  
(c) A well which has been left uncompleted.  
(d) A well which is a threat to groundwater resources.  
(e) A well which is or may be a health or safety hazard.  
(2) "Act" means Part 127 of Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1978, as amended,  
being §§333.12701 to 333.12715 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.  
(3) "Annular space" means the space between 2 cylindrical objects, 1 of which  
surrounds the other, such as the space between a borehole wall and a permanent casing or  
between a temporary casing and a permanent casing.  
(4) "Approved basement" means a basement which has walls and a floor that are  
constructed of concrete or its equivalent, which is reasonably watertight, which is  
properly drained, and which is in ordinary daily use.  
(5) "Aquifer" means a subsurface water-bearing geologic material that transmits  
water in sufficient quantities to supply a well.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1601a Definitions; B.  
Rule 101a. (1) "Basement offset" means a below grade well room or pump room  
which has walls and a floor that are constructed of concrete or its equivalent, which is  
reasonably watertight, and which is attached directly to, and drained into, an approved  
basement in a manner that provides access for the maintenance of water supply system  
components.  
(2) "Bedrock" means consolidated and continuous geologic material, such as  
limestone, dolomite, shale, sandstone, basalt, or granite.  
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(3) "Bentonite" means a plastic, colloidal clay which has an extensive ability to  
absorb fresh water and swell in volume and which is composed predominantly of the  
mineral montmorillonite.  
(4) "Bentonite chips" means bentonite that is crushed to an approximate size range  
of 3/8 to 3/4 of an inch.  
(5) "Bentonite grout" means a slurry which consists of bentonite and water and  
which has a high solids concentration and a minimum density that meets specifications  
approved by the department. A slurry of drilling fluid bentonite and water or drilled  
cuttings, either singularly or in combination, is not bentonite grout.  
(6) "Bentonite pellets" means bentonite that has been processed into pellet or  
tablet form with a diameter of 1/4 to 1/2 of an inch.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1602 Definitions; C, D.  
Rule 102. (1) "Casing" means an impervious durable pipe that is placed in a well to  
prevent the walls from caving and to prevent surface drainage, undesirable water,  
gas, or other fluids, from entering the well.  
(2) "Coliform group" means all of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic, gram-  
negative, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with gas formation  
within 48 hours at 35 degrees Celsius.  
(3) "Concrete grout" means a mixture of cement, sand, and water in the proportion  
of 1 bag of cement (94 pounds), an equal volume (1 cubic foot) of dry sand or gravel  
aggregate, and not more than 6 gallons of clean water.  
(4) "Confining layer" means geologic material which has a low hydraulic  
conductivity, which is 5 feet or more in thickness, and which impedes or prevents  
vertical groundwater movement.  
(5) "Contaminant" means a biological, chemical, physical, or radiological  
constituent in water that is or may become injurious to the public health, safety, or  
welfare.  
(6) "Date of completion" means the date on which the installation of the pump or  
pumping equipment was completed, the date on which well drilling was completed if a  
pump or pumping equipment will not be installed or will be installed by a person other  
than the well drilling contractor, or the date on which the water supply system is placed  
into service after the collection of water samples pursuant to the provisions of R  
325.1661.  
(7) "Department" means the state department of public health.  
(8) "Dewatering well contractor" means an individual, partnership, or corporation  
which is qualified to engage in dewatering well construction and dewatering well pump  
installation and which constructs or installs dewatering wells, plugs abandoned  
dewatering wells, or supervises such work.  
(9) "Dewatering well pump installer" means an individual, partnership, or  
corporation which is qualified to engage in installing and operating dewatering pumps  
and which installs and operates dewatering pumps or supervises such work.  
(10) "Director" means the director of the department or an authorized  
representative.  
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(11) "Drilling fluid bentonite" means bentonite that is processed into a powdered  
form for use as a viscosifier and filtrate reducer in drilling operations.  
(12) "Dry hole" means an open borehole or cased borehole that does not produce  
water in sufficient quantity for the intended use.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1603 Definitions; G to M.  
Rule 103. (1) "Geologic material" means all materials that are penetrated in  
drilling a well.  
(2) "Granular bentonite" means bentonite that has an approximate size range of  
1/32 to 1/8 of an inch.  
(3) "Ground surface" means the intended or actual finished grade of the surface of  
the ground at the well site, which shall be consistent with the surrounding land surface.  
(4) "Groundwater" means the water in the zone of saturation that fills all of the  
pore spaces of the subsurface geologic material.  
(5) "Grout" means a material that has a low permeability, such as neat cement,  
bentonite grout, bentonite chips, bentonite pellets, granular bentonite, or other  
materials which have equivalent sealing properties and which are approved in writing by  
the department before use.  
(6) "Grouting" means the placement of grout into the annular space that surrounds a  
permanent casing for the purpose of sealing the annular space to prevent the entrance or  
migration of surface water, near surface water, and contaminants to the groundwater and  
to maintain the natural protection of aquifers.  
(7) "Health officer" means the administrative officer who is in charge of a full-time  
local health department or an authorized representative.  
(8) "Installation of pumps and pumping equipment" means the selection of, and  
procedure employed in the placement and preparation for operation of, pumps and  
pumping equipment, including any construction that is involved in making an  
entrance to the well and also means installing a pitless adapter, well cap, pump drop  
pipe, suction line, discharge line, water service line, or pressure tank.  
(9) "Liner pipe" means a permanent casing installed within another permanent  
casing or open borehole subsequent to initial construction of the well.  
(10) "Municipality" means a city, village, township, county, district, or other public  
body that is created by or pursuant to state law or any combination of such units acting  
cooperatively or jointly.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1603a Definitions; N, O.  
Rule 103a. (1) "Neat cement" means a mixture of 1 bag of Portland cement (94  
pounds) and not more than 6 gallons of fresh water. Drilling fluid bentonite that is not  
more than 5% by weight of cement and additional water that is not more than 0.6  
gallons for each 1% of bentonite may be added to neat cement. Other additives and  
admixtures shall be approved by the department before use.  
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(2) "Overburden" means unconsolidated geologic material, such as gravel, sand, silt,  
and clay, that overlies bedrock.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1604 Definitions; P.  
Rule 104. (1) "Permanent casing" means durable, impervious pipe placed or driven  
into the borehole and left in place to maintain the well opening.  
(2) "Pitless adapter" means a device or assembly of parts which will permit water  
to pass through the wall of the well casing or extension thereof and which provides  
access to the well and to the parts of the water supply system within the well in a  
manner to prevent the entrance of contaminants into the well and the water produced.  
(3) "Potable water" means water which is free of contaminants in  
concentrations that may cause disease or harmful physiological effects and which is safe  
for human consumption.  
(4) "Pressure tank" means a closed water and air storage container that modulates  
the water supply system pressure within a selected range.  
(5) "Priming" means the filling of a pump with water and the action of starting the  
flow in a pump.  
(6) "Pumping equipment" means equipment or materials that are used or intended  
to assist a pump in withdrawing groundwater from a well, including any of the  
following:  
(a) Seals and other safeguards to protect the water from contamination.  
(b) Associated fittings.  
(c) Intake and discharge piping.  
(d) Controls to provide sanitary water storage facilities and deliver water to a  
distribution piping system.  
(7) "Pump room" means an enclosed structure which is either above ground surface  
or located within or attached to an approved basement and which houses a pump or  
pumping equipment.  
(8) "Pumping water level" means the distance measured from the ground surface  
to the water surface in a well that is being pumped.  
(9) "PVC" means polyvinyl chloride plastic.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1605 Definitions; R to T.  
Rule 105. (1) "Recharge well," as used in section 12701 of the act, means a well  
used to discharge groundwater into an aquifer.  
(2) "Static water level" means the distance measured from the ground surface to  
the water surface in a well that is neither being pumped nor under the influence of  
pumping.  
(3) "Suction line" means a pipe or line that is connected to the inlet side of a pump  
or any pipe or line connected to a casing or pump which is or may be at less than  
atmospheric pressure (0 psig).  
Page 4  
(4) "Sump" means a shallow excavation into the ground in which the side walls  
may be supported by material other than steel casing. Water may enter the sump by  
drainage over the ground or by seepage through the side walls and bottom.  
(5) "Surface water" means water that rests or flows on the surface of the ground.  
(6) "Temporarily abandoned well" means a well that is not in use, but intended by  
the owner to be used as a source of groundwater.  
(7) "Temporary casing" means durable pipe placed or driven into a borehole to  
maintain an open annular space around the permanent casing during construction of a  
well.  
(8) "Test well," as used in section 12701 of the act, means a well that is used to  
obtain information on groundwater quantity, quality, or aquifer characteristics for the  
purpose of designing or operating a water supply well.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1606 Definitions; V to Y.  
Rule 106. (1) "Wastewater" means a liquid waste that includes any of the following:  
(a) Human excreta.  
(b) Wastes from a sink, lavatory, bathtub, shower, or laundry.  
(c) Any other liquid waste of organic or chemical nature, either singularly or in  
combination.  
(2) "Water supply system" means a well, pump, and pumping equipment.  
(3) "Well," as defined in section 12701 of the act, also includes all of the following:  
(a) "Water supply well," which means a well that is used to provide potable water  
for drinking or domestic purposes.  
(b) "Irrigation well," which means a well that is used to provide water for plants,  
livestock, or other agricultural processes.  
(c) "Heat exchange well," which means a well for the purpose of utilizing the  
geothermal properties of earth formations for heating or air conditioning.  
(d) "Industrial well," which means a well that is used to supply water for industrial  
processes, fire protection, or similar nonpotable uses.  
(4) "Well drilling" means any of the following:  
(a) Constructing, reconstructing or repairing a well.  
(b) Operating a well drilling machine.  
(c) Installing or removing casing or a well screen.  
(d) Well grouting.  
(e) Well development.  
(f) Well rehabilitation.  
(g) Hydrofracturing.  
(h) Chemical treatment of a well.  
(i) Plugging abandoned wells.  
(5) "Well house" means an enclosed structure which is located above the ground  
surface and which houses a well or water supply system.  
(6) "Well log" or "water well record" means a record of information about a  
specific well as provided for in section 12707 of the act.  
Page 5  
(7) "Well seal" means a device to prevent the entrance of contaminants into the top  
of a well casing.  
(8) "Well used temporarily for dewatering," as used in section 12701 of the act,  
means a well that is used to lower the groundwater level temporarily at a  
construction site.  
(9) "Vent" means an outlet which is at the upper terminal of a well casing and  
which allows the equalization of air pressure in the well.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1607 Terms defined in the act.  
Rule 107. The terms defined in the act have the same meanings when used in these  
rules.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1608 Authorized activities.  
Rule 108. (1) A registered well drilling contractor may perform the well drilling  
activities that are set forth in R 325.1606(4) and pump installation activities that are  
set forth in R 325.1603(8).  
(2) A registered pump installer may perform the pump installation activities that  
are set forth in R 325.1603(8), but shall not perform well drilling activities that are set  
forth in R 325.1606(4).  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1610 Adoption of standards and specifications.  
Rule 110. (1) These rules refer to the following standards and specifications of  
nationally recognized organizations or associations, which were in effect on October 1,  
1993, and are adopted by reference in these rules:  
(a) The following standards of the American society for testing and materials,  
which are available at a cost as of the time of adoption of these rules of $12.00 each  
from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 1916 Race Street,  
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103:  
(i) ASTM specification A 53-90b, "Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black  
and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless."  
(ii) ASTM specification A 106-91, "Standard Specification For Seamless Carbon  
Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service."  
(iii) ASTM specification A 589-89a, "Standard Specification for Seamless and  
Welded Carbon Steel Water-Well Pipe."  
(iv) ASTM specification F 480-90, "Standard Specification for Thermoplastic  
Water Well Casing Pipe and Couplings Made in Standard Dimension Ratios (SDR)."  
(v) ASTM specification D 1785-91, "Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl  
Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Schedules 40, 80, and 120."  
Page 6  
(vi) ASTM specification D 2239-89, "Standard Specification for Polyethylene  
(PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter."  
(vii) ASTM specification D 2241-89, "Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl  
Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)."  
(viii) ASTM specification D 2662-89, "Standard Specification for Polybutylene  
(PB) Plastic Pipe Based on Controlled Inside Diameter."  
(ix) ASTM specification D 2666-89, "Standard Specification for Polybutylene  
(PB) Plastic Tubing."  
(x) ASTM specification D 2737-89, "Standard Specification for Polyethylene  
(PE) Plastic Tubing."  
(xi) ASTM specification C 150-89, "Standard Specification for Portland Cement."  
(b) American petroleum institute (API) specification 5L, 1990, "Specification  
for Line Pipe," which is available at a cost as of the time of adoption of these rules of  
$8.00 each and the API "Specification for Materials and Testing for Well Cements,"  
API specification 10, 1990, which is available at a cost as of the time of adoption of these  
rules of $12.00 each. Both specifications may be obtained from the American  
Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, Northwest, Washington, DC 20005.  
(c) American national standards institute (ANSI)/national sanitation foundation  
(NSF) "Standard Number 60 for Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals - Health  
Effects," 1988, and ANSI/NSF "Standard Number 61 for Drinking Water System  
Components - Health Effects," 1990, and ANSI/NSF "Standard Number 14 for Plastic  
Piping Components and Related Materials," 1989, which are available at a cost as of the  
time of adoption of these rules of $45.00 each from the National Sanitation Foundation  
(NSF), 3475 Plymouth Road, P. O. Box 1468, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.  
(2) The standards and specifications adopted by reference in subrule (1) of this rule  
are available for inspection and purchase at the office of the Michigan Department of  
Public Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Health, Division of Water  
Supply, 3423 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., P. O. Box 30195, Lansing, Michigan 48909.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1611 Application of rules to existing water supplies.  
Rule 111. (1) When extensive changes or repairs are made to a water supply  
system that was constructed before the effective date of these amendatory rules, the  
changes or repairs shall be in compliance with the provisions of these rules unless a  
deviation is issued pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1613. Extensive changes  
include replacing the entire casing, removing a casing from the ground, or changing  
aquifers.  
(2) Upgrading a water supply system to conform with these rules is not required  
when minor repairs to the system occur, such as any of the following:  
(a) Replacing a telescoped well screen.  
(b) Changing screen elevation.  
(c) Deepening or plugging back a bedrock well.  
(d) Installing a liner pipe.  
(e) Replacing a pump, controls, pump drop pipe, or pressure tank.  
(f) Chemical treatment of the well or well disinfection.  
Page 7  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1612 Compliance with regulations and local codes.  
Rule 112. A person who installs a well, pump, or pumping equipment shall comply  
with applicable laws, regulations, ordinances, and codes, including all of the following:  
(a) Act No. 399 of the Public Acts of 1976, as amended, being §325.1001 et seq. of  
the Michigan Compiled Laws. (safe drinking water act)  
(b) Act No. 266 of the Public Acts of 1929, as amended, being §338.901 et seq. of  
the Michigan Compiled Laws. (state plumbing code)  
(c) Act No. 154 of the Public Acts of 1974, as amended, being §408.1001 et seq. of  
the Michigan Compiled Laws. (occupational safety and health act)  
(d) Act No. 53 of the Public Acts of 1974, as amended, being §460.701 et seq. of the  
Michigan Compiled Laws. (utility damage prevention act)  
(e) Act No. 217 of the Public Acts of 1956, as amended, being §338.881 et seq. of  
the Michigan Compiled Laws. (electrical administrative act)  
(f) Act No. 331 of the Public Acts of 1976, as amended, being §445.901 et seq. of  
the Michigan Compiled Laws. (consumer protection act)  
(g) Any local code of a municipality which regulates the installation of a well,  
pump, or pumping equipment and which is not less restrictive than these rules. If a local  
board of health, in the discharge of its duties to protect the public health, deems it  
necessary to establish requirements that are more stringent than these rules, it shall do  
so and file a record of the requirements with the director. Well drilling contractors who  
drill wells in the counties that are affected by the more stringent requirements shall be  
notified, in writing, by the department or local health department not less than 5  
days before the effective date of the modified requirements.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1613 Deviations from minimum standards.  
Rule 113. (1) A health officer, in the discharge of his or her duty to protect the  
public health, may issue a deviation from the provisions of specific rules as provided  
for in this rule, if the spirit and intent of these rules are observed and the public health,  
safety, and welfare are assured.  
(2) Rules or parts of rules, specific minimum standards, requirements, and  
conditions for which deviations may be permitted are as follows:  
(a) The provisions of R 325.1611(1) may be deviated from to permit a water  
service line to remain in a condition that is not in compliance with the provisions of these  
rules when extensive changes or repairs to a water supply system are made if the water  
service line is located beneath a permanent structure or pavement.  
(b) The provisions of R 325.1622 may be deviated from as follows:  
(i) A well may be located closer than the specified minimum distance to a potential  
or known source of contamination if the dimensions of the property on which the well  
is to be located do not permit compliance with the specified minimum distances and if  
any of the following conditions exist:  
Page 8  
(A) Hydrogeologic data indicate that the direction of groundwater flow at the  
contamination source is away from the well.  
(B) The depth of the well and depth of grouting of the casing that is specified by a  
health officer as a condition of the deviation will provide equivalent protection of  
groundwater quality and the public health.  
(C) The well is being constructed to replace an existing water supply well that is  
located on a site where a habitable structure exists.  
(ii) A well may be required to be located more than the specified minimum  
distance from a potential or known source of contamination if the minimum specified  
distance will not protect groundwater quality or the public health due to local  
groundwater conditions, geology, or other factors.  
(iii) A well may be located closer than the specified minimum distance, but not  
closer than 10 feet, to a pressurized sewer that meets all of the following requirements:  
(A) The sewer pipe and joints have been pressure tested, after installation, to  
not less than 100 pounds per square inch and have been determined to be watertight.  
(B) The sewer pipe and joints meet or exceed the standards of ASTM  
specification D 1785-91 or D 2241-89. The specifications are adopted by reference in R  
325.1610.  
(C) The sewer has a wall thickness that is equivalent to, or thicker than, schedule  
40 or SDR 21.  
(iv) A health officer may require a study of the hydrogeological conditions of a  
site to support a deviation issued pursuant to the provisions of this subrule.  
(c) The provisions of R 325.1624(1)(a) may be deviated from to permit a well to be  
located closer than 3 feet to a building, pump room, or any projection thereof if all of  
the following conditions exist:  
(i) The well is replacing an abandoned well.  
(ii) The dimensions and features of the property on which the well is to be  
constructed do not permit location of the well to be in compliance with the specified  
minimum distance.  
(iii) Access for maintenance of the well is provided.  
(d) The provisions of R 325.1632(3) may be deviated from to permit a well casing  
to extend less than 25 feet below the ground surface if the well will not be used to  
supply water to habitable structures or for human consumption and if both of the  
following conditions exist:  
(i) The well and water supply system are clearly and permanently identified as  
not being suitable for human consumption or body contact.  
(ii) The well and water supply system are separated from any potable water  
supply system on the premises.  
(e) The provisions of R 325.1632(3) may be deviated from to permit a well casing  
to extend less than 25 feet below the ground surface if there is reason to believe that  
potable water of suitable quantity does not exist at a reasonable depth of more than 25  
feet and if either of the following conditions exists:  
(i) The distance between the well and a potential or known source of  
contamination is increased pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (b)(ii) of this  
subrule.  
Page 9  
(ii) A confining layer is present above the aquifer that will be used by the shallow  
(f) The provisions of R 325.1634a(1) may be deviated from to permit the length of  
well.  
casing to be grouted for rotary-bored or augered wells to be decreased if the well is  
more than 100 feet deep and if a confining layer is not penetrated.  
(g) The provisions of R 325.1637 may be deviated from to require that a well casing  
extend more than 25 feet below the ground surface if there is reason to believe that  
nonpotable water is or may be present in the upper bedrock.  
(h) The provisions of R 325.1638(2) may be deviated from to permit flowing  
well discharge if the well owner or the well owner's representative demonstrates  
any of the following:  
(i) Control of the flow is not practical.  
(ii) Control of the flow will likely result in the production of sand or turbidity in the  
water.  
(iii) The discharge is for a beneficial use.  
(3) Deviations from the rules listed in subrule (2) of this rule shall be made, in  
writing, by a health officer and shall state the reasons for each deviation. A health  
officer may require special well construction features as a condition for the issuance of  
a deviation and may require well construction features that are more stringent than  
these rules when deemed necessary to protect the groundwater quality or the public  
health. Reasons for the issuance of a deviation or special well construction features as  
a condition for the issuance of a deviation by a health officer shall be based upon any  
of the following factors:  
(a) Site hydrogeology.  
(b) Site topography.  
(c) Site dimensions.  
(d) Soil characteristics.  
(e) Depth of well.  
(f) Type of well.  
(g) Well pumping rate.  
(h) Well drilling method.  
(i) Distance from contamination sources.  
(j) Presence of groundwater contamination.  
(k) Other similar factors.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1621 Location and construction of wells generally.  
Rule 121. (1) All of the following provisions apply to well location:  
(a) A well shall be located with due consideration of all of the following:  
(i) Lot size.  
(ii) Hydrogeology.  
(iii) Site topography.  
(iv) Soil characteristics.  
(v) Other factors that are necessary to implement the provisions of these rules.  
Page 10  
(b) A well shall be located so that the well and its surrounding area can be kept in  
a sanitary condition.  
(c) A well shall be located so that access to the well for maintenance is provided.  
(d) A well shall be located so that damage and personal injury do not result from  
contact with utilities during the construction or service of the well.  
(2) A well shall be adequate in size, design, and development for the intended use  
giving due consideration to local groundwater conditions.  
(3) All of the following provisions apply to well construction:  
(a) A well shall be constructed to maintain existing natural protection against the  
contamination of aquifers.  
(b) A well shall be constructed to exclude all known sources of contamination  
from the well.  
(c) A well shall be constructed, equipped, and operated to prevent unnecessary  
discharge from flowing wells.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1622 Wells; distances from contamination sources.  
Rule 122. (1) A well that furnishes water for any beneficial use shall be located  
where it is not subject to contamination. Groundwater contaminant movement is  
influenced by the type of contaminant, groundwater flow direction and velocity, and  
other hydrogeologic, geologic, and geochemical factors. If available, hydrogeologic  
data shall be used to select well location. Where possible, a well shall be located  
upgradient of a potential or known source of contamination. A well shall be located the  
maximum practical distance from a potential or known source of contamination.  
The following minimum horizontal distances shall be maintained when locating a  
well:  
(a) Eight hundred feet from either of the following:  
(i) The active work area of a landfill, as defined in R 299.4101.  
(ii) Land surface application of septage waste, as defined by section 2 of Act No.  
181 of the Public Acts of 1986, being §325.312 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.  
(b) Three hundred feet from any of the following:  
(i) Land application or subsurface injection of effluent or digested sludge from a  
municipal wastewater treatment facility.  
(ii) Oil and gas wells.  
(iii) Petroleum product processing or storage facilities.  
(iv) Underground or abovegrade storage tank systems of not less than 1100  
gallons which are regulated under Act No. 423 of the Public Acts of 1984, as amended,  
being §299.701 et seq. of the Michigan Compiled Laws, when secondary containment  
as defined by Act No. 423 of the Public Acts of 1984, as amended, is not provided.  
(c) One hundred and fifty feet from a preparation or storage area for fertilizers,  
agricultural chemicals, or other chemicals that might contaminate the soil or  
groundwater.  
(d) Fifty feet from any of the following:  
(i) A buried sewer, other than a sewer that is specified in subdivision (g) of this  
subrule.  
Page 11  
(ii) A septic tank.  
(iii) A subsurface disposal field.  
(iv) A dry well.  
(v) A sewage pump chamber.  
(vi) A pressurized sewer.  
(vii) A grease trap.  
(viii) A seepage pit.  
(ix) A cesspool.  
(x) An animal or poultry yard.  
(xi) An outhouse.  
(xii) Any other wastewater handling or disposal unit or site of liquid wastes  
draining into the soil.  
(e) Fifty feet from underground or abovegrade storage tank systems which have a  
capacity of not less than 1,100 gallons, which are regulated pursuant to the  
provisions of Act No. 423 of the Public Acts of 1984, as amended, being §299.701 et  
seq. of the Michigan Compiled Laws, and which have secondary containment as defined  
in Act No. 423 of the Public Acts of 1984, as amended.  
(f) Fifty feet from underground or abovegrade storage tank systems which have a  
capacity of less than 1,100 gallons and which store motor or heating fuels for  
noncommercial purposes or consumptive use on the premises where the fuel is stored.  
(g) Ten feet from any of the following:  
(i) A buried gravity-flow sewer that is constructed of service weight or heavier  
ductile-iron pipe with watertight joints, schedule 40 PVC plastic with watertight joints,  
or other material and joints that are approved, in writing, by the director.  
(ii) A sump, pit, or unfilled space that is below the ground surface, except for a  
crawl space.  
(iii) A surface water body, such as a lake, pond, river, or stream.  
(2) The health officer who is responsible for enforcement of this rule may deviate  
from the minimum isolation distances in this rule pursuant to the provisions of R  
325.1613, either increasing or decreasing the minimum isolation distances for individual  
well installations.  
(3) A well that serves a public water supply, as defined pursuant to the provisions of  
Act No. 399 of the Public Acts of 1976, as amended, being §325.1001 et seq. of the  
Michigan Compiled Laws, shall be isolated from contamination sources in accordance  
with requirements specified in R 325.10101 et seq.  
(4) A well owner shall be responsible for maintaining the isolation distances that  
are specified in the provisions of R 325.1622 and R 325.1624 for property that is  
owned by the well owner.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1624 Wells; relation to buildings and access for maintenance.  
Rule 124. (1) A well shall be located not less than 3 feet horizontally from a  
building, pump room, or any projection thereof, unless a deviation is issued pursuant to  
the provisions of R 325.1613.  
Page 12  
(2) A well shall be accessible for cleaning, treatment, repair, testing, inspection, and  
other attention as may be necessary. A well owner shall maintain access to a well for a  
well drilling machine.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1625 Wells; areas subject to flooding.  
Rule 125. (1) A well shall not be located in an area that is subject to flooding unless  
the well is protected as prescribed, in writing, by the health officer.  
(2) A well owner shall grade the ground surface that is immediately adjacent to  
the well casing so surface water is diverted away from the well.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1626 Construction of wells; steel casing.  
Rule 126. (1) Steel pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be new pipe that  
is manufactured in compliance with the standards of ASTM specification A 53-90b, A  
106-91, or A 589-89a or in compliance with the standards of API specification 5L-90.  
The specifications are adopted by reference in R 325.1610.  
(2) Steel pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be at least standard weight  
or schedule 40 through 10 inches inside diameter. Larger diameter pipe shall be at least  
standard weight. Weights and dimensions of standard weight or schedule 40 pipe are set  
forth in ASTM specification A 53-90b, A 106-91, and A 589-89a, API 5L-90  
specification, and in table 1.  
Table 1  
Steel Well Casing  
Pipe Weights and Dimensions*  
Nominal  
Inside  
Pipe Size  
Diameter  
Weight  
Weight/  
Lbs.  
Per Ft.  
Wall  
Outside  
Plain  
Threaded/  
Thickness  
Diameter  
(Inches)  
1 1/4  
Schedule  
End  
Std./40  
Couplings  
2.27  
(Inches)  
(Inches)  
(Inches)  
2.30  
2.75  
3.75  
5.90  
7.70  
9.25  
11.00  
.140  
.145  
.154  
.203  
.216  
.226  
.237  
1.660  
1.900  
2.375  
2.875  
3.500  
4.000  
4.500  
1.380  
1.610  
2.067  
2.469  
3.068  
3.548  
4.026  
1 1/2  
2
"
"
"
"
"
"
2.72  
3.65  
5.79  
7.58  
9.11  
10.79  
2 1/2  
3
3 1/2  
4
Page 13  
5
"
14.62  
18.97  
28.55  
40.48  
49.56  
54.57  
62.58  
70.59  
78.60  
94.62  
15.00  
19.45  
29.35  
41.85  
51.15  
57.00  
65.30  
73.00  
81.00  
-
.258  
.280  
.322  
.365  
.375  
.375  
.375  
.375  
.375  
.375  
5.563  
6.625  
5.047  
6.065  
7.981  
6
"
8
"
8.625  
10  
"
10.750  
12.750  
14.000  
16.000  
18.000  
20.000  
24.000  
10.020  
12  
12.000  
14  
13.250  
16  
15.250  
18  
17.250  
20  
19.250  
24  
23.250  
Std.  
"
"
"
"
"
* Dimensions and tolerances are listed in the specifications adopted in R 325.1610.  
(3) Each length of steel pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be legibly  
marked, by the manufacturer, with all of the following information:  
(a) The name of the manufacturer.  
(b) The kind of pipe (continuous welded, electric resistance welded, or seamless).  
(c) The weight or schedule.  
(d) The nominal or outside diameter.  
(e) The specification number.  
(f) The length.  
(g) The heat or lot number.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1627 Construction of wells; steel casing and types of joints.  
Rule 127. (1) Steel pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be watertight  
throughout its length and shall have threaded or welded joints.  
(2) Couplings that are used on threaded steel casing shall be recessed or reamed  
and drifted couplings that are manufactured in compliance with the standards of ASTM  
specification A 589-89a or API specification 5L-90. The specifications are adopted by  
reference in R 325.1610. Couplings shall have a design, taper, and type of thread that is  
consistent with the thread of the pipe and threads shall not be exposed on the pipe.  
(3) Welded joints shall be in compliance with the specifications of table 2 and  
provide a structurally sound and watertight joint. Pipe ends shall be free of oil, grease,  
heavy rust, paint, or other foreign  
materials, except for tightly adherent mill scale. The weld bead shall be chipped and  
brushed to remove slag and other extraneous materials between passes.  
Page 14  
Table 2  
Minimum Number of Passes  
for Welding Steel Casing  
Pipe Diameter  
Minimum Number  
passes  
(inches)  
4
5
6
8
2
2
3
3
4
10 or larger  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1631 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1631a Construction of wells; PVC casing dimensions.  
Rule 131a. (1) PVC pipe that is used as permanent casing shall be new pipe that is  
manufactured in compliance with the standards of ASTM specification F 480-90,  
which is adopted by reference in R 325.1610.  
(2) PVC pipe that is used as permanent casing shall be SDR 21 or heavier. PVC  
pipe that is installed at depths of more than 200 feet shall be SDR 17 or heavier.  
(3) PVC pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall have an outside diameter  
and minimum wall thickness as specified in table 3. Dimensional standards for PVC  
pipe are specified in ASTM specification F 480-90.  
Table 3  
Diameter and Wall Thickness  
of PVC Well Casing and Liners  
Minimum Wall  
Nominal  
Pipe Size  
(inches)  
2
Thickness  
(inches)  
SDR 21  
.113  
.167  
Outside Diameter  
(inches)  
2.375  
SDR 17  
.140  
.206  
Liner Pipe  
Only  
3
3.500  
4
4.500  
.214  
.265  
5
6
8
10  
12  
5.563  
6.625  
8.625  
10.750  
12.750  
.265  
.316  
.410  
.511  
.606  
.327  
.390  
.508  
.632  
.750  
Page 15  
14  
16  
14.00  
16.00  
.667  
.762  
--  
--  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1631b Construction of wells; PVC casing material standards.  
Rule 131b. (1) PVC pipe that is used as permanent casing shall be new pipe that is  
in compliance with ASTM specification F 480-90, which is adopted by reference in R  
325.1610.  
(2) Each length of PVC pipe that is used as permanent well casing shall be legibly  
marked, by the manufacturer, with all of the following information:  
(a) The nominal pipe size.  
(b) The standard dimension ratio (SDR).  
(c) The type of plastic (PVC 1120 or PVC 1220).  
(d) The wording "well casing."  
(e) The impact classification (IC).  
(f) A designation that the pipe is in compliance with the provisions of ASTM  
specification F 480-90.  
(g) The manufacturer's name or trademark.  
(h) The manufacturer's code for resin manufacture.  
(i) The lot number and date of manufacture.  
(j) A certification mark that verifies that the pipe is in compliance with the  
provisions of ANSI/NSF standard 14.  
(3) Casing pipe that is manufactured from thermoplastic materials other than PVC  
shall be in compliance with the provisions of ASTM specification F 480-90, which is  
adopted by reference in R 325.1610, and shall be used only with the written prior  
approval of the director.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1631c Construction of wells; PVC well casing joints.  
Rule 131c. (1) PVC well casing joints shall be deep socket bell ends or couplings  
that are manufactured in accordance with ASTM specification F 480-90, which is  
adopted by reference in R 325.1610.  
(2) PVC casing fittings shall be legibly marked with all of the following  
information:  
(a) The nominal well casing pipe coupling size.  
(b) The type of plastic.  
(c) A designation that the fittings are in compliance with the provisions of  
ASTM specification F 480-90.  
(d) The manufacturer's name or trademark.  
(e) A certification mark that verifies that the fittings are in compliance with the  
provisions of ANSI/NSF standard 14.  
(3) PVC well casing joints shall be formed utilizing a 2-step solvent cementing  
process that is consistent with the provisions of ASTM specification F 480-90. The  
Page 16  
pipe ends shall be free of burrs, dust, or moisture that might interfere with the solvent  
weld. A primer or welding solvent shall be used before cementing. The primer, welding  
solvent, and solvent cement shall be compatible with the pipe being coupled and the  
ambient temperature at the time of use and shall be in compliance with the provisions of  
R 325.1640.  
(4) Screws or similar mechanical fasteners shall not be used for joining PVC well  
casing.  
(5) PVC well casing joints which are not of a bell end configuration or are not made  
utilizing a 2-step solvent cementing process shall be approved, in writing, by the  
director before use.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1631d Construction of wells; examination of pipe.  
Rule 131d. Pipe which is intended for water well use and which is sold within the  
state, regardless of specification designation, shall be subject to random examination  
by the director. Any lot of pipe that contains defective lengths or lengths which are  
not in compliance with the specifications required in these rules shall not be used in  
the construction of a well.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1632 Construction of wells; casing diameter, depth, termination, and  
installation procedures.  
Rule 132. (1) Steel pipe that is used as permanent casing shall have an inside  
diameter of not less than 2 inches, except as provided in R 325.1632a.  
(2) PVC pipe that is used as permanent casing shall have an inside diameter of  
not less than 5 inches, except if the pipe is installed as liner pipe. PVC well casing  
shall be installed only in an oversized borehole without driving.  
(3) A casing shall extend not less than 25 feet below, and terminate not less than 12  
inches above, the ground surface. A well that has less than 26 feet of casing shall not be  
used without obtaining written approval from the health officer pursuant to the  
provisions of R 325.1613.  
(4) The top 25 feet of a well casing shall not be used as a suction line unless the well  
casing is protected by a standard weight or heavier outer casing. The top of both  
casings shall be finished pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1641 and R 325.1643.  
(5) A driven steel permanent casing shall be protected by a drive shoe.  
(6) In a paved area, the health officer may approve, in writing, a casing  
termination of 2 inches or more above the ground surface if the area is not subject to  
flooding, if the connections and openings are threaded or welded and watertight, and  
if acceptable casing venting is provided.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
Page 17  
R 325.1632a Construction of wells; driven well points.  
Rule 132a. (1) Steel pipe that is used as permanent casing for a driven well point  
shall not be less than 1 1/4 inches inside diameter.  
(2) A driven well point shall not be used as a water supply well without the written  
approval of the health officer.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1633 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1633a Construction of wells; grouting.  
Rule 133a. (1) Shale traps, cementing baskets, packers, or other devices shall not be  
used to suspend grout above an open annular space. Excessive development, washing,  
shoveling of cuttings, or other similar activities shall not be used to induce collapse of  
the borehole wall or to reduce the amount of open annular space surrounding a permanent  
casing.  
(2) Neat cement or bentonite grout shall be placed through the permanent casing or a  
grout pipe from the bottom of the annular space upward to the ground surface in a  
continuous operation without interruption. The density of grout flowing from the annular  
space at the ground surface shall be the density of the grout being pumped in.  
(3) A permanent casing shall be installed in a borehole that has a diameter of not  
less than 2 inches larger than the nominal size of the permanent casing, except as  
provided in subrule (4) of this rule and R325.1635.  
(4) When grout is placed through a grout pipe outside the permanent casing, the  
borehole diameter shall be not less than 2 7/8 inches larger than the nominal casing size.  
(5) An annular space between a permanent casing and temporary casing shall be  
grouted during temporary casing removal by pumping neat cement or bentonite grout, or  
by pouring bentonite chips, bentonite pellets, or granular bentonite, into the annular  
space. Granular bentonite shall not be poured into an annular space that contains drilling  
fluid or water.  
(6) Neat cement shall be allowed to set a minimum of 24 hours when standard  
type I, type Ia, or high-early type III cement is used. If bentonite is added to neat  
cement, the grout shall be allowed to set a minimum of 48 hours before drilling  
operations are resumed.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1634 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
Page 18  
R 325.1634a Construction of wells; grouting rotary-bored or augered wells.  
Rule 134a. (1) A well that is constructed by rotary, auger, or other drilling method  
where the permanent casing is placed in an oversized borehole shall be grouted with  
neat cement or bentonite grout, pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1633a, the entire  
length of the casing. If a well screen is installed, the annular space shall be grouted from  
a point not more than 10 feet above the top of the well screen up to the ground  
surface.  
(2) The depth of grouting may be decreased by the health officer pursuant to  
the provisions of R 325.1613(2)(f).  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1635 Construction of wells; grouting driven casing wells.  
Rule 135. A well that is constructed by cable tool, hollow rod, jetting, or other  
drilling method where the permanent casing is driven shall be grouted pursuant to  
either of the following provisions:  
(a) Where temporary casing or oversized borehole is not used or where the  
temporary casing or oversized borehole is less than 25 feet in depth, dry granular  
bentonite shall be maintained around the permanent casing as it is being driven.  
(b) By installing a temporary casing or oversized borehole not less than 3 inches  
larger than the nominal size of the permanent casing and extending not less than 25  
feet below the established ground surface and grouting the annular space surrounding  
the permanent casing pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1633a.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1636 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1637 Construction of bedrock wells.  
Rule 137. (1) Where bedrock is encountered within 25 feet of the ground surface,  
an oversized borehole shall be drilled and the permanent casing shall be grouted with  
neat cement for a minimum depth of 25 feet.  
(2) In an area where a well can be developed only in fractured, jointed, or cavernous  
bedrock, the casing may terminate in the formation if there is not less than 25 feet of soil  
above the bedrock, if there is no record of the bedrock containing contaminated water,  
and if geologic conditions offer no natural direct surface or near surface water inlets  
into the bedrock aquifer. Where there is less overburden and deeper strata will not  
produce potable water, the well owner shall obtain written approval from the health  
officer for water treatment and well construction features that are necessary to provide a  
safe supply.  
(3) Hydraulic fracturing of bedrock is not permitted without the prior written  
approval of the health officer.  
Page 19  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1637a Verification of well grouting.  
Rule 137a. Where the department or health officer determines that any of the  
following conditions exist, the well drilling contractor may be required to excavate  
the well head for inspection:  
(a) A visible open annular space surrounding a well casing.  
(b) Failure to detect, using a soil probe, excavation, geophysical logging, or  
other methods, grout 2 feet or more below the water service line connection to the  
casing.  
(c) Placement of tracer dye around the casing at or near the ground surface with  
subsequent detection of the dye in the well water.  
(d) Receipt of a well log which indicates that the well has not been grouted or  
which lacks information or contains incomplete information pertaining to grouting of  
the well.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1638 Construction of flowing artesian wells.  
Rule 138. (1) A well that is constructed in a location where flowing artesian  
conditions are encountered or are expected to occur shall be grouted to protect the  
artesian aquifer, prevent erosion of overlying geologic materials, and confine the flow  
to within the casing.  
(2) Flowing well discharge control shall be provided to conserve groundwater  
and to prevent the loss of artesian head by preventing or reducing continuous  
discharges, unless a deviation is issued pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1613. Flow  
control shall consist of valved pipe connections, watertight pump connections, a  
receiving tank that is set at an altitude corresponding to that of the artesian head, a  
flowing well pitless adapter, a packer, or other method approved by the health officer. A  
flow discharge pipe, where installed, shall not be directly connected to a sewer or other  
source of contamination.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1639 Construction of wells; well screens; lead packers, lead plugs,  
lead wool and certain drilling fluids prohibited; requirements for steel pipe used  
as screen riser pipes, blanks, or tailpipes; well pumping rate; temporary  
capping; well alignment; drilling water; requirements when using chlorine or  
other well rehabilitation chemicals.  
Rule 139. (1) A water supply well that is installed in unconsolidated sand and  
gravel aquifers shall ordinarily be fitted with a screen that has openings which are  
properly sized so that the aquifer can be properly developed to produce sand-free  
water at the pumping rate of the permanent pump. A well screen, where installed on a  
Page 20  
casing that is less than 4 inches inside diameter, shall be telescoped and removable,  
except for a driven well point that is installed pursuant to the provisions of R  
325.1632a.  
(2) Lead packers, lead plugs, or lead wool shall not be used as a well component.  
(3) Drilling fluids or additives that contain guar gum or other biodegradable  
organic materials shall not be used during the drilling of a well.  
(4) Steel pipe that is used as well screen riser pipes, blanks, or tailpipes shall be  
in compliance with the minimum weight, dimension, and material standards for well  
casing that are listed in the provisions of R 325.1626 and R 325.1627.  
(5) A new, repaired, or reconditioned well shall be developed and pumped to waste  
at a pumping rate which equals or exceeds that of the permanent pump, until the water is  
as clear as is reasonably possible considering the groundwater conditions in the area.  
The permanent pump shall not be used to develop the well without the owner's consent.  
(6) Temporary capping of a well until the pumping equipment is installed shall be  
provided to prevent contaminants from entering the well.  
(7) A well shall be sufficiently straight and vertical to allow normal installation and  
operation of the pump.  
(8) Water that is used for drilling purposes, other than water from the well itself,  
shall be potable water that contains a free chlorine residual of not less than 10 parts per  
million at the time of use and shall be conveyed in containers that are clean and  
capable of being maintained in a clean condition. Surface water shall not be used for  
drilling purposes unless it is obtained from a municipal water supply system.  
(9) When chlorine is placed into a water supply system pursuant to the provisions  
of R 325.1661 or when well rehabilitation chemicals are used, the well drilling  
contractor or pump installer shall provide notification to the well owner or building  
occupants or shall make the system inoperable during the treatment period.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1640 Certification of water well components.  
Rule 140. (1) Water supply system components that are in contact with  
groundwater shall be free of materials that may adversely affect the aquifer or water  
pumped from the well and shall not support microbiological growth.  
(2) After January 1, 1994, a person shall not use the following water well  
components unless they are in compliance with or surpass ANSI/NSF standard 14, 60,  
or 61, ASTM specification C 150, or section 10 of API specification 10, as adopted by  
reference in R 325.1610:  
(a) Drilling fluids, grouts, and casing sealing materials.  
(b) Additives to drilling fluids, grouts, and casing sealing materials.  
(c) Pipe joint compounds, thread cutting oils, gasket sealants, or coatings on  
steel pipe.  
(d) Solvent cements, primers, cleaners, or other compounds that are used with PVC  
pipe.  
(e) Bladders, diaphragms, coatings, or lining materials that are in contact with  
water in a pressure or storage tank.  
Page 21  
(f) Chemicals that are used for the development, maintenance, treatment,  
disinfection, or rehabilitation of a water well, except for sodium hypochlorite or  
calcium hypochlorite.  
History: 1994 AACS  
R 325.1641 Abovegrade well casing connections.  
Rule 141. An abovegrade connection into the top or side of a well casing shall be  
not less than 12 inches above the ground surface and shall be constructed to exclude  
dirt or other foreign matter, through 1 or more of the following methods, as applicable:  
(a) A threaded connection.  
(b) A welded connection.  
(c) A rubber expansion sealer.  
(d) Bolted flanges with rubber gaskets.  
(e) A weathertight, vermin-proof well cap.  
(f) Extension of the casing at least 1 inch into the base of a power pump mounted  
on and sealed to a concrete pedestal.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1642 Belowground well casing connections.  
Rule 142. (1) A connection to a well casing that is made below the ground, or  
less than 12 inches above the ground surface, shall be protected by approved  
threaded or welded joints or by an approved pitless adapter. A belowground connection  
shall not be submerged in water during installation.  
(2) Clamp-on, saddle-style pitless adapters shall have both gaskets pressurized by  
water from the pump so that any water leakage will be from the pressure system  
outward. A pitless adapter shall provide complete clearance within the internal  
diameter of the casing and shall vent the casing if required by the provisions of R  
325.1657. A person shall not install a pitless adapter that has not been approved, in  
writing, by the department.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1643 Well casing seals and connections; other methods.  
Rule 143. Any other method of connection to a well casing shall be approved in  
writing by the director before installation.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 325.1651 Construction of room housing pumping equipment or well  
casing; location of pump or pumping equipment in single-family dwelling  
Page 22  
permitted; access required for repair and maintenance of water supply system  
components.  
Rule 151. (1) A room that houses pumping equipment or the top of a well casing  
shall be constructed above the ground surface; however, the room may be located  
below grade if it is a basement offset as defined in R 325.1601a(1).  
(2) A pump or pumping equipment may be located within a crawl space beneath  
a single-family dwelling if the space does not accumulate water.  
(3) A pump room, basement offset, crawl space, or well house shall provide  
access for maintenance or repair of the water supply system components.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1652 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1653 Pump construction, installation, design, and maintenance.  
Rule 153. (1) A pump shall be constructed so that there are no unprotected  
openings into the interior of the pump or well casing.  
(2) A power driven pump shall be attached to the casing or approved suction or  
discharge line by a watertight connection or shall have a base plate that is in compliance  
with the provisions of R 325.1641.  
(3) A pump shall be designed, installed, and maintained so that priming is not  
required for ordinary use.  
(4) Plastic pump drop pipe shall be in compliance with the material requirements  
for water service lines pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1655(2). Flexible or coiled  
plastic pipe, when used as submersible pump drop pipe, shall not have splices. Plastic  
pump drop pipe shall not be used with a packer-jet assembly.  
(5) Submersible pump motor lubricants and vertical turbine shaft lubricants  
shall be USDA- or FDA-approved food contact grade formulations.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1653a Pump installation; hand pumps.  
Rule 153a. (1) A hand pump, hand pump head, hand pump stand, or similar device  
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of R 325.1653, shall provide  
for venting pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1657, and shall have a closed  
downward-directed spout and a sealed pump rod packing assembly.  
(2) A hand pump shall be attached to a steel well casing or standpipe by sealed  
flange or other method approved by the department. The flange shall be not less than 6  
inches above a concrete slab or the ground surface. An annular space between a  
standpipe and a well casing shall be sealed in accordance with the provisions of R  
325.1641 or with materials listed in subrule (5) of R 325.1603.  
Page 23  
(3) Where a well casing functions as a hand pump cylinder wall, the plunger shall  
be not less than 25 feet below the ground surface. A casing wall weep hole is not  
permitted.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1654 Pump installation; water suction lines.  
Rule 154. (1) A water suction line shall be constructed of copper, galvanized  
steel, plastic pipe or other material that is approved, in writing, by the director.  
(2) A water suction line that is outside the well casing shall be protected by  
utilizing 1 or more of the following methods:  
(a) By fully exposing the line and by situating the line not less than 12 inches  
above the floor of an approved basement, basement offset, or pump room.  
(b) By fully exposing the line above ground surface.  
(c) By situating the line within an outer casing with the annular space filled with  
water from the system and maintained at system pressure.  
(d) By surrounding the line by air space in a straight rigid conduit which does not  
have joints and which has positive drainage by gravity to the ground surface or to an  
approved basement, basement offset, or pump room, with the conduit directly  
connected to the well casing by a threaded or welded watertight joint. The openings into  
the casing shall be welded watertight or shall be sealed in accordance with the  
provisions of R 325.1641 to R 325.1643 and the total length of the suction line that is  
protected by the gravity drained conduit shall not be more than 20 feet.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1655 Pump installation; water service lines.  
Rule 155. (1) The buried portion of a water service line between the well casing  
and the pressure tank in any installation shall be under positive pressure at all times.  
If a check valve is installed in the water line between the well casing and the pressure  
tank, the water line between the well casing and the check valve shall be in  
compliance with the requirements for a suction line pursuant to the provisions of R  
325.1654.  
(2) Plastic water service line material shall have a minimum rated working  
pressure of 160 pounds per square inch, shall be in compliance with ASTM  
specification D 2239-89, D 2737-89, D 2662-89, D 2666-89, D 1785-91, or D 2241-  
89, which specifications are adopted by reference in R 325.1610.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1656 Pump installation; pressure tanks.  
Rule 156. (1) A pressure tank shall be installed in an approved pump room, well  
house, crawl space, basement offset, or basement.  
Page 24  
(2) A totally buried pressure tank may be used if the manufacturer's unit has been  
approved, in writing, by the director as to its design, type of material, and specification  
for its installation.  
(3) If a pump is capable of developing water pressures greater than the  
manufacturer's rated working pressure of the pressure tank, a pressure relief valve shall  
be installed near the pressure tank.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1656a Pump installation; venting of gases.  
Rule 156a. Toxic or flammable gases that are present in the groundwater shall be  
vented from the water supply system. The vent shall discharge to the outside atmosphere  
where the gases will not be a hazard. A health officer or the department shall be  
consulted for proper identification or treatment of gases.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1657 Pump installation; vents.  
Rule 157. (1) A casing vent shall be provided on all well caps and seals, except  
for those used on deep well, single pipe-packer jet installations, or on flowing wells  
where the flow rate is greater than the pumping rate of the permanent pump. A vent  
shall be screened, pointed downward, and terminate not less than 12 inches above the  
ground surface or above the floor of an approved basement, basement offset, or pump  
room, and at a point not less than 24 inches above any known flood level. Vents may be  
offset if they are in compliance with the provisions of this rule. Vents shall be in  
compliance with the minimum sizes listed in table 4.  
Table 4  
Minimum Well Casing Vent Sizes  
Casing  
Inside Diameter  
(Inches)  
2
Circular  
Vent Diameter  
(Inches)  
¼
½
¾
1
4
5 or 6  
8 or larger  
(2) Vent screening shall be not less than 20-mesh per inch and not more than 30-  
mesh per inch screen. Screening shall not reduce the vent open area by more than 50%.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1657a Pump installation; well caps and seals.  
Page 25  
Rule 157a. Well caps and seals shall be weathertight and vermin-proof, provide  
venting pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1657, and be tightly secured to the well  
casing.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1658 Pump installation; sampling faucets.  
Rule 158. Provision shall be made for the collection of water samples by installing a  
downturned faucet, not less than 8 inches above the floor, in a convenient location at the  
pressure tank or as near to the well as possible.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1661 Disinfection of well and pumping equipment.  
Rule 161. (1) After thoroughly pumping to waste pursuant to the provisions of  
R 325.1639(5), a well and pumping equipment shall be disinfected with chlorine  
that is applied to obtain  
a
chlorine concentration and minimum contact period  
specified in table 5 in all parts of the water supply system before pumping the well to  
waste and flushing out the chlorine solution. A well drilling contractor or pump  
installer shall be responsible for chlorinating that portion of the water supply system on  
which work has been performed.  
Table 5  
Minimum Chlorine Concentration and Contact Time  
Amount of Chlorine Added to  
100 Gallons of Water  
Pounds of  
Chlorine  
Minimum  
Gallons of 5.25%  
Dry  
Calcium  
Contact  
Concentration  
(Parts per Million)  
Sodium Hypochlorite  
(Liquid Bleach)  
Hypochlorite  
(Granular)  
Time  
100 ppm  
250 ppm  
500 ppm  
1000 ppm  
1/4 gal  
1/2 gal  
1 gal  
0.14 lbs  
0.35 lbs  
0.70 lbs  
1.40 lbs  
10 hr  
4 hr  
2 hr  
1 hr  
2 gal  
(2) Before placing a new, repaired, or reconditioned water supply system into  
service, and after all traces of chlorine have been flushed out, 1 or more water samples  
Page 26  
shall be collected from the sampling faucet. Organisms of the coliform group shall not be  
present in the sample or samples.  
(3) The water supply owner shall be responsible for collecting the water sample or  
shall arrange for the owner's designated representative to collect the sample. The well  
drilling contractor or pump installer shall notify the water supply owner of the owner's  
responsibility for collecting the water sample.  
(4) A well driller or pump installer is not required to redisinfect a well or pump as  
a result of water samples that are collected from a location other than the sampling  
faucet required pursuant to the provisions of R 325.1658.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1662 Abandoned wells and dry holes; persons responsible for  
plugging; removal of debris and obstructions; wells taken out of service when  
municipal water is installed.  
Rule 162. (1) An abandoned well or dry hole shall be plugged by a well drilling  
contractor who is registered pursuant to the provisions of the act or by the well owner.  
An abandoned well that is located on property which has a well that serves the public or  
a residence other than the well owner's residence, shall be plugged by a registered  
well drilling contractor.  
(2) A pump, a drop pipe, a packer, other equipment, debris, or obstructions  
shall be removed from the well, if possible, before plugging.  
(3) A well that is abandoned when municipal water is installed shall be plugged  
pursuant to the provisions of these rules.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1663 Abandoned wells and dry holes; plugging method.  
Rule 163. (1) An abandoned well or dry hole shall be plugged as follows:  
(a) A well or dry hole that terminates in overburden shall be plugged by filling with  
any of the following materials:  
(i) Neat cement.  
(ii) Concrete grout.  
(iii) Bentonite chips.  
(iv) Bentonite pellets.  
(v) Bentonite grout.  
(b) A section of a well or dry hole that is in bedrock shall be plugged by filling with  
neat cement or concrete grout from the bottom of the well or dry hole to not less than 20  
feet above the top of the bedrock or to the ground surface. The section of the well from  
20 feet above the bedrock to the ground surface shall be plugged in accordance with the  
provisions of subdivision (a) of this subrule.  
(2) Gravel, sand, stone aggregate, or other materials that are acceptable to the  
department may be used for plugging that portion of a well that penetrates lost  
circulation zones, such as gravel or cavernous, creviced, or fractured bedrock.  
Page 27  
(3) The flow from an abandoned flowing well shall be stopped by plugging the well  
with neat cement or concrete grout.  
(4) Abandoned wells that discharge subterranean gases shall be plugged with neat  
cement or concrete grout.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1664 Abandonment of wells; plugging materials.  
Rule 164. Abandoned well or dry hole plugging materials shall be placed as  
follows:  
(a) Bentonite chips or bentonite pellets shall be poured slowly into the top of the  
well or dry hole to prevent bridging in the casing or borehole. Fine bentonite particles  
that accumulate in the shipping container shall not be used. The plugging operation shall  
continue until the bentonite chips or bentonite pellets appear at the ground surface.  
Upon completion of the plugging operation, water shall be placed into the casing or  
borehole to promote expansion of the bentonite above the static water level.  
(b) Neat cement, concrete grout, or bentonite grout shall be placed through a  
tremie pipe from the bottom of the well or dry hole to the ground surface.  
(c) Other materials and methods may be used if the materials and methods proposed  
to be used will plug the abandoned well or dry hole to prevent them from acting as a  
channel for contamination or the escape of subterranean gases and if prior approval is  
given by a health officer.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1665 Plugging of dug wells and crock wells.  
Rule 165. A large diameter dug well or crock well shall be plugged pursuant to  
the provisions of R 325.1663 and R 325.1664 or may be plugged as follows:  
(a) A layer of bentonite chips or bentonite pellets that is not less than 6 inches  
thick shall be placed at the bottom of the well. The remainder of the well shall be  
plugged by placing clean soil backfill in  
layers that are not more than 10 feet thick, with a layer of bentonite chips or  
bentonite pellets that is not less than 6 inches thick placed on top of each clean soil  
backfill layer. Dry granular bentonite may be used  
in place of, or in combination with, bentonite chips or bentonite pellets, and neat  
cement or concrete grout may be poured if the well has been dewatered before  
plugging.  
(b) The uppermost section of concrete crock or tile or the upper 3 feet of stone,  
brick, or other curbing material that supports the well bore shall be removed. Before  
backfilling the well up to the ground surface, a layer of bentonite chips or bentonite  
pellets that is not less than 6 inches thick shall be placed.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
Page 28  
R 325.1666 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1667 Plugging wells drilled by person other than property owner or  
registered well drilling contractor.  
Rule 167. A well that was drilled by a person other than the property owner or by  
a person other than a well drilling contractor who is registered pursuant to the  
provisions of the act shall be abandoned and plugged pursuant to the provisions of these  
rules.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1668 Order to plug abandoned well or dry hole.  
Rule 168. The department or a health officer may order a well owner or a registered  
well drilling contractor to plug an abandoned well or a dry hole.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1669 Owner and contractor responsibility for plugging abandoned  
wells.  
Rule 169. (1) A well owner shall be responsible for the plugging of an abandoned  
well, except as provided in a written contract between the owner and a registered well  
drilling contractor.  
(2) If a health officer or the department determines that a registered well drilling  
contractor has improperly located or constructed a well, the well drilling contractor shall  
be responsible for plugging the well.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1670 Temporarily abandoned wells.  
Rule 170. (1) A temporarily abandoned well shall be in compliance with the  
minimum construction and isolation distance requirements of these rules.  
(2) A temporarily abandoned well shall be disconnected from any water  
distribution piping and shall have the top of the casing securely capped to prevent the  
entrance of surface water or foreign materials into the well and to prevent access to the  
well.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1671 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
Page 29  
R 325.1672 Storage reservoirs.  
Rule 172. If a storage reservoir is used in a water supply system, plans for the  
storage reservoir installation shall be submitted to the health officer and approval  
obtained before installation of the reservoir. A storage reservoir shall be constructed  
of materials approved by the department and shall be designed, operated, and  
maintained in a manner to prevent the entrance of contaminants. For the purposes of  
this rule, a storage reservoir does not include a pressure tank.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1673 Provision of notice of health hazard to person using  
contaminated water supply.  
Rule 173. An owner or occupant who uses a contaminated water supply or a supply  
which, in the judgment of a health officer, represents a health hazard shall be notified,  
in writing, by the health officer of the health hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1674 Other water sources.  
Rule 174. If a water well cannot be constructed in compliance with the provisions  
of these rules due to hydrogeological limitations, a health officer may authorize the  
use of an alternate water source. Plans, specifications, and monitoring, operating, and  
maintenance procedures for the alternate water source shall be approved by the health  
officer.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1674a Water supply cross-connections.  
Rule 174a. (1) A physical connection between a water supply that is in compliance  
with the requirements of these rules and another water supply that is not in compliance  
with the requirements of these rules is prohibited.  
(2) A yard hydrant that has a buried stop-and-waste valve shall not be installed on a  
water service line or a branch of the service line. A stop-and-waste valve shall not  
drain into a well.  
(3) A water supply system shall be designed, operated, and maintained in a manner  
that will prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids, or gases from being  
introduced into the water supply or aquifer through cross-connections or any other  
piping connections to the water supply system.  
History: 1994 AACS.  
Page 30  
R 325.1675 Well records.  
Rule 175. (1) Within 60 days of the date of completion of a well, a well drilling  
contractor shall furnish the well owner with 1 copy and a health officer with 2 copies of  
a well log that contains the information required on the form furnished by the director.  
The health officer shall send 1 copy of the well log to the department of natural  
resources within 30 days after the health officer receives the copies of the well log. A  
well drilling contractor shall retain a copy of the well log.  
(2) A well drilling contractor shall record the geologic material types and  
thicknesses penetrated on a record that is kept at the well construction site. The  
record shall be available for inspection during well construction.  
(3) Within 60 days after plugging an abandoned well or dry hole, the person who  
performed the plugging operation shall provide the department or local health  
department with 2 copies of a report that sets forth all of the following information:  
(a) The well owner's name.  
(b) The location of the well.  
(c) The well depth.  
(d) The well diameter.  
(e) The plugging procedure.  
(f) The plugging material.  
(g) The amount of plugging material used. Standard forms for the report shall be  
provided by the department. When an abandoned well is plugged where a replacement  
well will be or has beenconstructed, the plugging information may be recorded on the  
well log that is submitted for the replacement well. Information on several abandoned  
wells or dry holes within a single parcel may be submitted on a single well log form if  
the geologic materials and plugging methods are similar.  
(4) A well log shall be signed by a registered well drilling contractor.  
(5) Where a well drilling contractor fails to submit a well log within 60 days of the  
date of completion of a well or fails to maintain the drilling record pursuant to the  
provisions of subrule (2) of this rule, the department or health officer may require  
geophysical logging of the well to verify geologic materials and thicknesses of  
geologic materials penetrated.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1676 Pump installation records.  
Rule 176. (1) Within 60 days of the date of completion of a pump installation  
upon a new well, a well drilling contractor or pump installer shall furnish the well owner  
with 1 copy and a health officer with 2 copies of a pump installation record that  
contains available information that is required on a form furnished by the director. The  
health officer shall send 1 copy of the record to the department of natural resources  
within 30 days after the health officer receives the copies of the pump record. A well  
drilling contractor or pump installer shall retain a copy of the pump record. All of the  
following data shall be provided on the form:  
(a) The type of pump installed (jet, submersible, reciprocating, hand-operated,  
or other type).  
(b) The pump capacity in gallons per minute.  
Page 31  
(c) The length of drop pipe.  
(d) The horsepower of the pump motor.  
(e) The pump model number.  
(f) The pump manufacturer's name.  
(2) A pump record shall be signed by a registered well drilling contractor or by a  
registered pump installer.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
PART 2. DRILLING CONTRACTORS' AND PUMP INSTALLERS'  
REGISTRATION  
R 325.1701 Qualifications.  
Rule 201. An applicant who is applying for registration pursuant to the provisions  
of the act shall meet all of the following requirements, as applicable:  
(a) Have not less than 2 years of well drilling experience and have completed not  
less than 20 wells for registration as a well drilling contractor or have not less than 2  
years of pump installation experience and have completed not less than 20 pump  
installations for registration as a pump installer. Well drilling experience shall have been  
acquired under the supervision of an active Michigan registered well driller and pump  
installation experience shall have been acquired under the supervision of an active  
Michigan registered well driller or pump installer. The experience shall have been  
obtained within the past 5 years.  
(b) Be not less than 18 and have completed high school or submit proof of  
equivalent education. Up to 4 years of work experience may be substituted for  
equal years of education; however, this shall be in addition to the experience  
requirement in subdivision (a) of this rule.  
(c) Be of good moral character, as defined and determined pursuant to the  
provisions of Act No. 381 of the Public Acts of 1974, being §338.41 et seq. of the  
Michigan Compiled Laws.  
(d) Provide proof of work experience as required in R 325.1701a.  
History: 1979 AC; 1994 AACS.  
R 325.1701a Proof of work experience.  
Rule 201a. (1) Proof of an applicant's work experience in the well drilling or  
pump installation field shall be documented by submitting all of the following to the  
department:  
(a) Well logs or pump records to demonstrate completion of not less than 20 water  
wells by a well driller applicant and not less than 20 pump installations by a pump  
installer applicant. The records shall be true and accurate photocopies of those records  
initially submitted by the supervising contractor to satisfy the requirements of section  
12707 of the act. The records shall demonstrate completion of work by the applicant  
over a period of not less than 2 years and not more than 5 years.  
Page 32