DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of labor and economic  
opportunity by sections 14 and 24 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act,  
1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1014 and 408.1024, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos.  
1996-1, 1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, 2011-4, and 2019-3, MCL 330.3101, 445.2001,  
445.2011, 445.2025, 445.2030, and 125.1998)  
PART 554. BLOODBORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES  
R 325.70001 Scope, application, and referenced standards.  
Rule 1. (1) These rules apply to all employers that have employees with  
occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious material.  
(2) The following Michigan occupational safety and health standards are referenced in  
these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be obtained at no charge from the  
Department of Labor and Economic Opportunity, MIOSHA, Standards and FOIA  
Section, 530 W. Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan 48909-8143, or via  
the internet at website: www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than  
5, the cost, at the time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry and Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 470. “Employee  
Medical Records and Trade Secrets,” R 325.3451 to R 325.3476.  
(b) MIOSHA Safety and Health Standard Part 11. “Recording and Reporting of  
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,” R 408.22101 to R 408.22162.  
(3) The appendices to these rules are informational only and are not intended to create  
any additional obligations or requirements not otherwise imposed by these rules or to  
detract from any established obligations or requirements.  
History: 1993 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2021 MR 8, Eff. Apr. 27, 2021.  
R 325.70001a Rescinded.  
History 2014 AACS; 2021 MR 8, Eff. Apr. 27, 2021.  
R 325.70002 Definitions.  
Rule 2. As used in these rules:  
(a) “Act” means Michigan occupational safety and health act (MIOSHA), 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1001 to 408.1094.  
(b) “Biologically hazardous conditions” means equipment, containers, rooms,  
materials, experimental animals, animals infected with HBV or HIV virus, or  
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combinations thereof that contain, or are contaminated with, blood or other potentially  
infectious material.  
(c) “Blood” means human blood, human blood components, and products made  
from human blood.  
(d) “Bloodborne pathogens” means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in  
human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include hepatitis B virus  
(HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  
(e) “Clinical laboratory” means a workplace where diagnostic or other screening  
procedures are performed on blood or other potentially infectious material.  
(f) “Contaminated” means the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of  
blood or other potentially infectious material on an item or surface.  
(g) “Contaminated laundry” means laundry that has been soiled with blood or other  
potentially infectious materials or that may contain sharps.  
(h) “Contaminated sharps” means any contaminated object that can penetrate the  
skin, including any of the following:  
(i) Needles.  
(ii) Scalpels.  
(iii) Broken glass.  
(iv) Broken capillary tubes.  
(v) Exposed ends of dental wires.  
(i) “Decontamination” means the use of physical or chemical means to remove,  
inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they  
are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is  
rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.  
(j) “Department” means the department of licensing and regulatory affairs.  
(k) “Director” means the director of the department or his or her designee.  
(l) “Disinfect” means to inactivate virtually all recognized pathogenic  
microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms, on inanimate objects.  
(m) “Engineering controls” means controls, for example, sharps disposal containers,  
self-sheathing needles, or safer medical devices, such as sharps with engineered sharps  
injury protections and needleless systems, that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen  
hazard from the workplace.  
(n) “Exposure” means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or  
parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result  
from the performance of an employee’s duties. “Exposure” does not include incidental  
exposures that may take place on the job, that are neither reasonably nor routinely  
expected, and that the worker is not required to incur in the normal course of  
employment.  
(o) “Exposure incident” means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane,  
nonintact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious material  
that results from the performance of an employee’s duties.  
(p) “Handwashing facilities” means facilities that provide an adequate supply of  
running, potable water, soap, and single-use towels or an air drying machine.  
(q) “Licensed health care professional” means a person whose legally permitted  
scope of practice allows him or her to independently perform the activities required by  
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R 325.70013 concerning hepatitis B vaccination and post-exposure evaluation and  
follow-up.  
(r) “Needleless systems” means a device that does not use needles for any of the  
following:  
(i) The collection of bodily fluids or withdrawal of body fluids after initial venous or  
arterial access is established.  
(ii) The administration of medication or fluids.  
(iii) Any other procedure involving the potential for occupational exposure to  
bloodborne pathogens due to percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.  
(s) “Other potentially infectious material” means any of the following:  
(i) Any of the following human body fluids:  
(A) Semen.  
(B) Vaginal secretions.  
(C) Amniotic fluid.  
(D) Cerebrospinal fluid.  
(E) Peritoneal fluid.  
(F) Pleural fluid.  
(G) Pericardial fluid.  
(H) Synovial fluid.  
(I) Saliva in dental procedures.  
(J) Any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood.  
(K) All body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate  
between body fluids.  
(ii) Any unfixed tissue or organ, other than intact skin, from a living or dead human.  
(iii) Cell or tissue cultures that contain HIV, organ cultures, and culture medium or  
other solutions that contain HIV or HBV; and blood, organs, or other tissues from  
experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.  
(t) “Parenteral” means exposure occurring as a result of piercing mucous membrane  
or the skin barrier, such as exposure through subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, or  
arterial routes resulting from needlesticks, human bites, cuts, and abrasions.  
(u) “Personal protective equipment” or “PPE” means specialized clothing or  
equipment that is worn by an employee to protect him or her from a hazard. General  
work clothes, such as uniforms, pants, shirts, or blouses, that are not intended to function  
as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.  
(v) “Production facility” means a facility that is engaged in the industrial-scale,  
large-volume production of HIV or HBV or in the high-concentration production of HIV  
or HBV.  
(w) “Regulated waste” means any of the following:  
(i) Liquid or semiliquid blood or other potentially infectious material.  
(ii) Contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious  
material in a liquid or semiliquid state if compressed.  
(iii) Items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious material and  
that are capable of releasing these materials during handling.  
(iv) Contaminated sharps.  
(v) Pathological and microbiological waste that contains blood and other potentially  
infectious material.  
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(x) “Research laboratory” means a laboratory that produces or uses research  
laboratory-scale amounts of HIV or HBV. A research laboratory may produce high  
concentrations of HIV or HBV, but not in the volume found in a production facility.  
(y) “Sharps with engineered sharps injury protections” means a nonneedle sharp or a  
needle device that is used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or  
administering medications or other fluids, and that has a build-in safety feature or  
mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.  
(z) “Source individual” means any living or dead individual whose blood or other  
potentially infectious material may be a source of occupational exposure to an employee.  
Examples of a source individual include all of the following:  
(i) A patient of a hospital or clinic.  
(ii) A client of an institution for the developmentally disabled.  
(iii) A victim of trauma.  
(iv) A client of a drug or alcohol treatment facility.  
(v) A resident of a hospice or nursing home.  
(vi) Human remains.  
(vii) An individual who donates or sells his or her blood or blood components.  
(aa) “Standard operating procedures (SOPs)” means any of the following that  
address the performance of work activities so as to reduce the risk of exposure to blood  
and other potentially infectious material:  
(i) Written policies.  
(ii) Written procedures.  
(iii) Written directives.  
(iv) Written standards of practice.  
(v) Written protocols.  
(vi) Written systems of practice.  
(vii) Elements of an infection control program.  
(bb) “Sterilize” means the use of a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all  
microbial life, including highly resistant bacterial endospores.  
(cc) “Universal precautions” means a method of infection control that treats all  
human blood and other potentially infectious material as capable of transmitting HIV,  
HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens.  
(dd) “Work practices” means controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure to  
bloodborne pathogens by altering the manner in which a task is performed.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70003 Exposure determination.  
Rule 3. (1) An employer shall evaluate routine and reasonably anticipated tasks and  
procedures to determine whether there is actual or reasonably anticipated employee  
exposure to blood or other potentially infectious material. Based on this evaluation, an  
employer shall categorize all employees into category A or B as follows:  
(a) Category A consists of occupations that require procedures or other occupation-  
related tasks that involve exposure or reasonably anticipated exposure to blood or other  
potentially infectious material or that involve a likelihood for spills or splashes of blood  
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or other potentially infectious material. This includes procedures or tasks conducted in  
nonroutine situations as a condition of employment.  
(b) Category B consists of occupations that do not require tasks that involve  
exposure to blood or other potentially infectious material on a routine or nonroutine basis  
as a condition of employment. Employees in occupations in this category do not perform  
or assist in emergency medical care or first aid and are not reasonably anticipated to be  
exposed in any other way.  
(2) An exposure determination shall be made without regard to the use of personal  
protective clothing and equipment.  
(3) An employer shall maintain a list of all job classifications that are determined to  
be category A.  
History: 1993 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70004 Exposure control plan.  
Rule 4. (a) If an employee is determined to be in category A, then an employer shall  
establish a written exposure control plan to minimize or eliminate employee exposure.  
(b) An exposure control plan shall contain all of the following information:  
(i) The exposure determination required by R 325.70003(1).  
(ii) The schedule and method of implementation for each applicable rule.  
(iii)The contents or a summary of the training program required by R 325.70016.  
(iv) The procedures for the evaluation of circumstances surrounding exposure  
incidents as required by R 325.70013(5).  
(v) Task-specific standard operating procedures (SOPs) that address all of the  
following areas:  
(A) Employee recognition of reasonably anticipated exposure to blood and other  
potentially infectious material.  
(B) Appropriate selection, use, maintenance, and disposal of personal protective  
equipment.  
(C) Contingency plans for foreseeable circumstances that prevent following the  
recommended SOPs.  
(c) General employer policies or task-specific SOPs shall address the management of  
inadvertent exposures such as needlesticks or mucus membrane exposures.  
(d) The exposure control plan shall be reviewed at least annually and updated as  
necessary. A review shall consider changes in employees' tasks and procedures and the  
latest information from the centers for disease control or the department. See appendix A  
for addresses of these agencies. The review and update of the exposure control plans shall  
comply with both of the following provisions:  
(i) Reflect changes in technology that eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne  
pathogens.  
(ii) Document annually consideration and implementation of appropriate  
commercially available and effective safer medical devices designed to eliminate or  
minimize occupational exposure.  
(e) An employer shall ensure that only a person who has knowledge of applicable  
control practices is authorized to write and to review an exposure control plan.  
Page 5  
(f) An employer shall ensure that the exposure control plan is made available to the  
director or a representative of the director for examination and copying upon request.  
(g) An employer shall ensure that a copy of the exposure control plan is accessible to  
category A employees in accordance with Occupational Health Standard Part 470  
“Employee Medical Records and Trade Secrets,” as referenced in R 325.70001a.  
(h) An employer, who is required to establish an exposure control plan shall solicit  
input from non-managerial employees responsible for direct patient care who are  
potentially exposed to injuries from contaminated sharps in the identification, evaluation,  
and selection of effective engineering and work practice controls and shall document the  
solicitation in the exposure control plan.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70005 Universal precautions.  
Rule 5. Universal precautions shall be observed to prevent contact with blood and  
other potentially infectious materials. If differentiation between body fluid types is  
difficult or impossible, all body fluids shall be considered potentially infectious materials.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 325.70006 Engineering controls.  
Rule 6. (1) Engineering controls shall be used in combination with work practice  
controls to minimize or eliminate employee exposure to blood and other potentially  
infectious material. Where exposure remains after use of engineering and work  
practice controls, personal protective equipment shall also be used.  
(2) Engineering controls shall be examined and maintained or replaced on a regular  
schedule to ensure their effectiveness.  
(3) An employer shall provide hand-washing facilities which are  
readily  
accessible to employees. When provision of hand-washing facilities is not feasible, an  
employer shall provide an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser with clean cloth or  
paper towels or antiseptic towelettes.  
History: 1993 AACS.  
R 325.70007 Work practices.  
Rule 7. At a minimum, work practices shall ensure all of the following:  
(a) All personal protective equipment shall be removed before leaving the work area  
and shall be placed in an appropriately designated area or container for storage, washing,  
decontamination, or disposal.  
(b) If a garment is penetrated by blood or other potentially infectious materials, the  
garment shall be removed immediately or as soon as feasible.  
(c) Employers shall provide handwashing facilities that are readily accessible to  
employees. When provision of handwashing facilities is not feasible, the employer shall  
provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean  
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cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes. When antiseptic hand cleansers or towelettes  
are used, employees shall wash hands with soap and running water as soon as feasible.  
(d) Employers shall ensure that employees wash their hands immediately or as soon  
as feasible after removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment.  
(e) Employers shall ensure that employees wash hands and any other skin with soap  
and water, or flush mucous membranes with water immediately or as soon as feasible  
following contact of such body areas with blood or other potentially infectious materials.  
(f) Used needles and other contaminated sharps shall not be sheared, bent, or broken  
and shall not be recapped or resheathed where other disposal methods are practical. Used  
needles and other sharps shall not be recapped, resheathed, or removed unless the  
employer can demonstrate that no alternative is feasible or that such action is required by  
a specific medical procedure. Needle recapping or removal shall be accomplished by use  
of a mechanical device or a 1-handed technique. The disposal of needles and sharps shall  
be accomplished in accordance with the provisions of R 325.70010.  
(g) Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, or handling contact  
lenses is prohibited in laboratories and other work areas where there is a reasonable  
likelihood of exposure.  
(h) Food and drink shall not be stored in refrigerators, freezers, shelves, cabinets, or  
on countertops or benchtops where blood or other potentially infectious material is  
present or in other areas of possible contamination.  
(i) All procedures that involve blood or other potentially infectious material shall be  
performed in a manner that minimizes splashing, spraying, and aerosolization of blood or  
other potentially infectious material.  
(j) Mouth pipetting or suctioning is prohibited.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70008 Protective work clothing and equipment.  
Rule 8. An employer shall provide protective work clothing and equipment used in  
the following:  
(a) When there is occupational exposure, an employer shall provide, at no cost to the  
employee, and assure that an employee uses, appropriate personal protective clothing and  
equipment, such as any of the following:  
(i) Gloves.  
(ii) Gowns.  
(iii) Fluid-proof aprons.  
(iv) Laboratory coats.  
(v) Head and foot coverings.  
(vi) Faceshields or mask and eye protection.  
(vii) Mouthpieces.  
(viii) Resuscitation bags.  
(ix) Pocket masks.  
(x) Other ventilation devices.  
Personal protective equipment is appropriate only if it does not permit blood or other  
potentially infectious material to pass through to or reach the employee’s work clothes,  
street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under  
Page 7  
normal conditions of use and for the duration of time that the protective equipment is  
used.  
(b) An employer shall ensure that an employee uses appropriate personal protective  
equipment unless the employer shows that the employee temporarily and briefly declined  
to use PPE when, under rare and extraordinary circumstances, it was the employee’s  
professional judgment that in the specific instance the use of PPE would have prevented  
the delivery of health care or public safety services or would have posed an increased  
hazard to the safety of the worker or coworker. When the employee makes this judgment,  
the circumstances shall be investigated and documented to determine if changes can be  
made to prevent future occurrences.  
(c) An employer shall assure that appropriate protective equipment and clothing in  
the appropriate sizes are readily accessible at the worksite or issued to employees at no  
cost to the employees. Hypoallergenic gloves, glove liners, powderless gloves, or other  
similar alternatives shall be readily accessible to employees who are allergic to the gloves  
normally provided. See appendix A for more information.  
(d) An employer shall provide for the cleaning, laundering, or disposing of  
protective clothing and equipment required by this rule.  
(e) An employer shall repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment  
as needed to maintain their effectiveness.  
(f) An employee shall wear gloves if there is a reasonable anticipation of direct skin  
contact with blood, other potentially infectious material, mucous membranes, or  
nonintact skin of patients; when performing vascular access procedures, except as  
specified in subdivision (g) of this subrule; and when handling items or surfaces that are  
soiled with blood or other potentially infectious material. Disposable (single-use) gloves,  
such as surgical or examination gloves, shall be replaced as soon as practical if  
contaminated or as soon as feasible if torn, punctured, or ineffective as barriers.  
Disposable gloves shall not be washed or decontaminated for reuse. Utility gloves shall  
be discarded if any are cracked, peeling, discolored, torn, or punctured or exhibit other  
signs of deterioration, but may be decontaminated for reuse if the integrity of the glove is  
maintained.  
(g) If an employer of a volunteer blood donation center judges that routine gloving  
for all phlebotomies is not necessary, the employer shall do all of the following:  
(i) Periodically reevaluate this policy.  
(ii) Make appropriate gloves available to all employees who wish to use them for  
phlebotomy.  
(iii) Not discourage the use of gloves for phlebotomy.  
(iv) Require that gloves be used for phlebotomy in the following circumstances:  
(A) When the employee has cuts, scratches, or other breaks in the skin on his or her  
hands or wrists.  
(B) When the employee judges that hand contamination with blood may occur, for  
example, when performing phlebotomy on an uncooperative patient.  
(C) When the employee is receiving training in phlebotomy.  
(h) Employees shall wear masks and eye protection or chin-length face shields as  
appropriate if splashes, sprays, spatters, droplets, or aerosols of blood or other potentially  
infectious material may be generated and if there is a likelihood for eye, nose, or mouth  
contamination.  
Page 8  
(i) Employees shall wear gowns, lab coats, aprons, clinic jackets, or similar outer  
garments where appropriate if there is a reasonably anticipated exposure. Such clothing  
shall protect all areas of exposed skin that have a significant likelihood for contamination.  
The type of characteristics will depend upon the task and degree of exposure anticipated.  
(j) Employees shall wear surgical caps or hoods and shoe covers or boots where  
appropriate if there is a reasonable anticipation of gross contamination, for example, in  
autopsies and orthopedic surgery.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70009 Housekeeping.  
Rule 9. (1) An employer shall assure that the worksite is maintained in a clean and  
sanitary condition. An employer shall determine and implement an appropriate written  
schedule for cleaning and for the method of decontamination based on all of the  
following:  
(a) The location within a facility.  
(b) The type of surface to be cleaned.  
(c) The type of soil present.  
(d) The tasks or procedures being performed.  
(2) All equipment and environmental and working surfaces shall be maintained in a  
sanitary condition as follows:  
(a) Work surfaces shall be cleaned and appropriately decontaminated with an  
appropriate disinfectant in all of the following instances:  
(i) After completion of procedures.  
(ii) When surfaces are overtly contaminated.  
(iii) Immediately when blood or other potentially infectious material is spilled.  
(iv) At the end of the work shift if the surface may have become contaminated since  
the last cleaning. See appendix A for supplemental information.  
(b) Protective coverings such as plastic wrap, aluminum foil, or plastic-backed,  
absorbent paper may be used to cover equipment and environmental surfaces. These  
coverings shall be removed and replaced at the end of the work shift if contaminated or as  
soon as feasible when they become overly contaminated.  
(c) Equipment that may become contaminated with blood or other potentially  
infectious material shall be examined before servicing or shipping and shall be  
decontaminated as necessary unless the employer can demonstrate that decontamination  
is not feasible. If decontamination is not feasible, the employer shall ensure that a readily  
observable label which states the portions of the equipment that remain contaminated and  
that is in compliance with R 325.70014(2)(h) is attached to the equipment. The employer  
shall ensure that all affected employees, the servicing representative, or the manufacturer,  
as appropriate, is notified that equipment decontamination is not feasible and is notified  
of the portions of the equipment that remain contaminated before handling, servicing, or  
shipping so that appropriate precautions will be taken.  
(d) All bins, pails, cans, and similar receptacles that are intended for reuse and that  
have a reasonable likelihood for becoming contaminated with blood and other potentially  
infectious material shall be inspected and decontaminated on a regularly scheduled basis  
Page 9  
and shall be cleaned and decontaminated immediately, or as soon as possible, upon  
visible contamination.  
(e) Broken glassware that may be contaminated shall not be picked up directly with  
the hands. It shall be cleaned up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dust pan,  
tongs, cotton swabs, or forceps.  
(f) Specimens of blood or other potentially infectious material shall be placed in a  
closable leakproof container during collection, handling, processing, storing,  
transporting, or shipping. If contamination of the outside of a primary container is likely,  
a second leakproof container shall be placed over the outside of the first and closed to  
prevent leakage during handling, processing, storing, transporting, or shipping. If  
puncture of the primary container is likely, then the primary container shall be placed  
within a leakproof, puncture-resistant secondary container. All containers shall be labeled  
or color-coded in accordance of R 325.70014.  
(g) Reusable sharps that are contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious  
materials shall not be stored or processed in a manner that requires employees to reach by  
hand into the containers where these sharps have been placed.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70010 Regulated waste disposal.  
Rule 10. (1) All regulated waste that is being disposed of shall be placed in  
closable, leakproof containers or bags that are color-coded or labeled as required by  
the provisions of R 325.70014. If outside contamination of the container or bag is  
likely to occur, then a second leakproof container or bag that is closable and labeled  
or color-coded shall be placed over the outside of the first and closed to prevent  
leakage during handling, storage, and transport.  
(2) Immediately after use, contaminated sharps shall be disposed of in closable,  
leakproof, puncture-resistant, disposable containers that are labeled or color-coded  
according to the provisions of  
R 325.70014.  
These containers shall be easily  
accessible to personnel; shall be located in the immediate area of use or where sharps  
are likely to be found, unless needles are mechanically recapped and transported  
through nonpublic corridors to the container; and shall be replaced routinely and  
not allowed to overfill.  
(3) The disposal of all medical waste shall be in compliance with the provisions  
of sections 13801 to 13831 of Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1978, as amended,  
being SS333.13801 to 333.13831 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, and known as the  
medical waste regulatory act.  
History: 1993 AACS.  
R 325.70011 Laundry.  
Rule 11. (1) Laundry that is or may be soiled with blood or other potentially  
infectious material or that may contain contaminated sharps shall be treated as if it were  
contaminated and shall be handled as little as possible with a minimum of agitation.  
Page 10  
(2) Contaminated laundry shall be bagged at the location where it was used and shall  
not be sorted or rinsed in areas where patients are cared for.  
(3) Contaminated laundry shall be placed and transported in bags or containers  
labeled or color-coded in accordance with R 325.70014. If laundry is wet and presents the  
likelihood for soaking through or leaking from the bag, it shall be placed and transported  
in leakproof bags.  
(4) An employer shall ensure that laundry workers wear protective gloves and other  
appropriate personal protective work clothing while handling contaminated laundry.  
(5) When an employer follows universal precautions in the handling of all soiled  
laundry, alternative labeling or color coding is sufficient if it permits all employees to  
recognize the containers that are required to be in compliance with universal precautions.  
(6) When an employer ships contaminated laundry off-site to a facility that does not  
use universal precautions in the handling of all laundry, the shipping employer shall use  
bags or containers that are labeled or color-coded in accordance with R 325.70014.  
History: 1993 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70012 HIV and HBV research laboratories and production  
facilities.  
Rule 12. (1) This rule applies to research laboratories and production facilities  
that are engaged in the culture, production, concentration, experimentation, and  
manipulation of HIV and HBV. This rule applies to such laboratories and facilities in  
addition to the other requirements of these rules. This rule does not apply to  
clinical or diagnostic laboratories that are engaged solely in the analysis of blood,  
tissues, or organs.  
(2) Research laboratories and production facilities shall be in compliance  
with all of the following requirements:  
(a) All infectious liquid or solid waste shall be incinerated or decontaminated  
by a method known to effectively destroy bloodborne pathogens before being  
disposed of.  
(b) Laboratory doors shall be kept closed when work involving HIV or HBV is in  
progress.  
(c) Contaminated materials that are to be decontaminated at a site away from the  
work area shall be placed in a durable, leakproof, labeled or color-coded container  
that is closed before being removed from the work area.  
(d) Access to the work area shall be limited to authorized persons only.Written  
policies and procedures shall be established whereby only persons who have been  
advised of the biohazard, who meet any specific entry requirements, and who  
comply with all entry and exit procedures shall be allowed to enter the work areas and  
animal rooms.  
(e) When other potentially infectious material or infected animals are present in  
the work area or containment module, a hazard warning sign that incorporates the  
universal biohazard symbol shall be posted on all access doors. The hazard warning  
sign shall be in compliance with the provisions of R 325.70014(1).  
(f) All activities that involve other potentially infectious material shall be  
conducted in biological safety cabinets or other physical containment devices  
Page 11  
within the containment module. Work with such material shall not be conducted on the  
open bench.  
(g) Laboratory coats, gowns, smocks, uniforms, or other appropriate protective  
clothing shall be used in the work area and animal rooms.Protective clothing shall not  
be worn outside of the work area and shall be decontaminated before being laundered.  
(h) Special care shall be taken to avoid skin contamination with other potentially  
infectious materials. Gloves shall be worn when handling infected animals and  
when making contact with other potentially infectious materials is unavoidable.  
(i) All waste from work areas, including animal rooms, shall be incinerated  
or decontaminated by a method known to effectively destroy bloodborne pathogens  
before disposal.  
(j) Vacuum lines shall be protected with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)  
filters, or equivalent filters, and liquid disinfectant traps.Filters and traps shall be  
checked routinely and maintained or replaced as necessary.  
(k) Hypodermic needles, syringes, and other sharp instruments shall be used  
only when a safer alternate technique is not feasible. Only needle-locking syringes  
or disposable syringe with needle units that have a needle as an integral part of the  
syringe shall be used for the injection or aspiration of other potentially infectious  
material. Extreme caution shall be used when handling needles and syringes to  
avoid autoinoculation and the generation of aerosols during use and disposal. A needle  
shall not be bent, sheared, replaced in the sheath or guard, or removed from the  
syringe after being used. The needle and syringe shall be promptly placed in a  
puncture-resistant container and decontaminated, preferably by autoclaving, before  
being discarded or reused.  
(l) A spill or accident that results in an exposure incident shall be immediately  
reported to the laboratory director or another responsible person. Spills shall  
immediately be contained and cleaned up by appropriate professional staff who are  
trained and equipped to work with potentially concentrated infectious material.  
(m) A biosafety manual shall be prepared or adopted and reviewed and updated  
at least annually. Personnel shall be advised of potential hazards and shall be required  
to read and follow instructions on practices and procedures.  
(n) Both of the following containment equipment requirements shall be complied  
with:  
(i) Class I, II, or III certified biological safety cabinets or other appropriate  
combinations of personal protection or physical containment devices, such as any of  
the following, shall be used for all activities with other potentially infectious material  
that poses a threat of exposure to droplets, splashes, spills, or aerosols:  
(A) Special protective clothing.  
(B) Respirators.  
(C) Centrifuge safety cups.  
(D) Sealed centrifuge rotors.  
(E) Containment caging for animals.  
(ii) Biological safety cabinets shall be certified when installed, at least annually,  
and when they are relocated.  
(3) HIV and HBV research laboratories shall be in compliance with both of the  
following requirements:  
Page 12  
(a) Each laboratory shall contain a sink for washing hands and an eye wash  
station that are readily available in the work area.  
(b) An autoclave for the decontamination of regulated wastes shall be available.  
(4) HIV and HBV production facilities shall be in compliance with all of the  
following requirements:  
(a) The work areas shall be separated from areas that are open to an unrestricted  
traffic flow within the building. Passage through 2 sets of doors shall be the basic  
requirement for entry into the work area from access corridors or other contiguous  
areas. Physical separation of the high-containment work area from access corridors  
or other areas or activities may also be provided by a double-doored room for  
changing clothes, an airlock, or other access facility that requires passing through 2  
sets of doors before entering the work area. Showers may be included as part of the  
changing room.  
(b) The interior surfaces of walls, floors, and ceilings shall be water-resistant  
so that they can be easily cleaned. Penetrations in these surfaces shall be sealed or  
capable of being sealed to facilitate decontamination of the work area.  
(c) Each work area shall contain a sink for washing hands. The sink shall be  
foot-operated, elbow-operated, or automatically operated and shall be located near  
the exit door of the work area.  
(d) Access doors to the work area or containment module shall be self-  
closing.  
(e) An autoclave for the decontamination of infectious wastes shall be available  
within, or as near as possible to, the work area.  
(f) A ducted exhaust air ventilation system shall be provided. This system shall  
create directional airflow that draws air into the work area through the entry area. The  
exhaust air shall not be recirculated to any other area of the building, shall be  
discharged to the outside, and shall be dispersed away from occupied areas and air  
intakes. The proper direction of the airflow into the work area shall be verified.  
(5) Additional training requirements for employees in HIV and HBV research  
laboratories and HIV and HBV production facilities are specified in R 325.70016(6).  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS.  
R 325.70013 Vaccinations and postexposure follow-up.  
Rule 13. (1) An employer shall assure that all medical evaluations are procedures  
that are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician or other licensed  
health care professional and that all laboratory tests are conducted by an accredited  
laboratory.  
(2) An employer shall assure that all evaluations, procedures, vaccinations, and  
postexposure prophylaxes are provided without cost to the employee, at a reasonable time  
and place, and according to current recommendations of the United States public health  
service, unless in conflict with this rule.  
(3) An employer shall assure that all employees will receive appropriate counseling  
with regard to medical risks and benefits before undergoing any evaluations, procedures,  
vaccinations, or postexposure prophylaxes.  
Page 13  
(4) Within 10 working days of the time of initial assignment and after the employee  
has received training required by R 325.70016(5)(i), an employer shall make all of the  
following available to each category A employee:  
(a) A hepatitis B vaccination. If an employee initially declines vaccination, but at a  
later date, while still covered under these rules, decides to accept the HBV vaccine, the  
employer shall provide the vaccine at that time. If a booster dose or doses are  
recommended by the United States public health service at a future date, the booster dose  
or doses shall be made available.  
(b) If an employee has previously received the complete HBV vaccination series, is  
found to be immune to HBV by virtue of adequate antibody titer, or the vaccine is  
contraindicated for medical reasons, then the employer is not required to offer the HBV  
vaccine to that employee.  
(c) An employer shall not make participation in a prescreening program a  
prerequisite for receiving hepatitis B vaccination.  
(d) An employer shall assure that an employee who declines to accept hepatitis B  
vaccination signs a waiver statement with all of the following provisions:  
(i) Understanding of risk.  
(ii) Acknowledgment of opportunity of vaccination at no cost.  
(iii) Declining vaccination.  
(iv) Future availability of vaccination at no cost if desired, if still in at-risk status.  
See appendix B for a sample of an acceptable waiver statement.  
(5) An employer shall provide each exposed employee with an opportunity to have a  
confidential medical evaluation and follow-up subsequent to a reported occupational  
exposure incident to blood or other potentially infectious material. The evaluation and  
follow-up shall include, at a minimum, all of the following elements:  
(a) Documentation of the route or routes of exposure and the circumstances under  
which the exposure incident occurred.  
(b) Identification and documentation of the source individual, unless the employer  
can establish that identification is infeasible or prohibited by state or local law, shall  
include all of the following:  
(i) The source individual’s blood shall be tested as soon as feasible and after consent  
is obtained to determine HBV and HIV infectivity. If consent is not obtained, the  
employer shall establish that legally required consent cannot be obtained. If the source  
individual’s consent is not required by law, his or her blood, if available, shall be tested  
and the results documented.  
(ii) If the source individual is already known to be infected with HBV or HIV,  
testing need not be repeated.  
(iii) Results of the source individual’s testing shall be made available to the exposed  
employee, and the employee shall be informed of applicable laws and regulations  
concerning disclosure of the identity and infectious status of the source individual.  
(c) Collection and testing of blood or HBV and HIV serological status shall include  
both of the following:  
(i) The exposed employee’s blood shall be collected as soon as feasible and tested  
after consent is obtained.  
(ii) If the exposed employee consents to baseline blood collection, but not to HIV  
testing at that time, the sample shall be preserved for not less than 90 days. If within the  
Page 14  
90 days the employee elects to have the baseline sample tested, such testing shall be done  
as soon as feasible.  
(d) Postexposure prophylaxis, when medically indicated, as recommended by the  
United States public health service.  
(e) Counseling on risk reduction and the risks and benefits of HIV testing in  
accordance with state law.  
(f) Evaluation of reported illnesses.  
(6) An employer shall ensure that the health care professional who is responsible for  
the hepatitis B Vaccination is provided with a copy of these rules and appendices. An  
employer shall ensure that the health care professional who evaluates an employee after  
an exposure incident is provided with all of the following information:  
(a) A description of the affected employee’s duties as they relate to the employee’s  
exposure incident.  
(b) Documentation of the route or routes of exposure and the circumstances under  
which exposure occurred.  
(c) Results of the source individual’s blood testing, if available.  
(d) All medical records that are relevant to the appropriate treatment of the  
employee, including vaccination status, and that are the employer’s responsibility to  
maintain.  
(7) For each evaluation pursuant to the provisions of this rule, an employer shall  
obtain, and provide an employee with a copy of, the evaluating health care professional’s  
written opinion within 15 working days of the completion of the evaluation. The written  
opinion shall be limited to the following information:  
(a) Whether hepatitis B vaccination is indicated for an employee and if the employee  
has received such vaccination.  
(b) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical  
evaluation and that the employee has been told about any medical conditions that have  
resulted from exposure to blood or other potentially infectious material and that require  
further evaluation or treatment. The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not  
reveal specific findings or diagnoses that are unrelated to the employee’s ability to wear  
protective clothing and equipment or receive vaccinations. Such findings and diagnoses  
shall remain confidential.  
(8) Medical records that are required by these rules shall be maintained in  
accordance with R 325.70015.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70014 Communication of hazards to employees.  
Rule 14. (1) An employer shall post signs at the entrance to work areas specified in  
R 325.70012. The signs shall bear the following legend:  
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[Name of infectious agent]  
[Special requirements for entering the area]  
[Name and telephone number of the laboratory director or other responsible person]  
These signs shall be fluorescent orange-red with lettering and symbols in a  
contrasting color.  
(2) Labels shall be in compliance with all of the following requirements:  
(a) Warning labels shall be affixed to containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and  
freezers that contain blood or other potentially infectious material, and other containers  
that are used to store or transport blood or other potentially infectious material, except as  
provided in subdivision (e) or (f) of this subrule.  
(b) Labels that are required pursuant to this rule shall include the follow legend:  
(c) Labels shall be fluorescent orange or orange-red or predominately orange or  
orange-red, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.  
(d) Labels shall either be an integral part of the container or shall be affixed as close  
as safely possible to the container by string, wire, or adhesive or by another method that  
prevents the loss of labels or the unintentional removal of labels.  
(e) Red bags or red containers may be substituted for labels.  
(f) Containers of blood, blood components, or blood products that are labeled as to  
their contents and that have been released for transfusion or other clinical use are  
exempted from the labeling requirements of this rule.  
(g) Individual containers of blood or other potentially infectious materials that are  
placed in a labeled container during storage, transport, shipment, or disposal are  
exempted from labeling requirements.  
Page 16  
(h) Labels required for contaminated equipment shall be in accordance this subrule  
and shall also describe which portions of the equipment remain contaminated.  
(i) Regulated waste that has been decontaminated need not be labeled or color-  
coded.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70015 Recordkeeping.  
Rule 15. (1) An employer shall establish and maintain medical records for each  
category A employee in accordance with General Industry and Construction Safety and  
Health Standard Part 470. “Employee Medical Records and Trade Secrets,” as referenced  
in R 325.70001.  
(2) An employer shall ensure that medical records contain, at a minimum, all of the  
following information:  
(a) A copy of the employee’s hepatitis B vaccination status, including the dates  
administered and medical records relating to the employee’s ability to receive a  
vaccination as required by R 325.70013.  
(b) A copy of all results of examinations, medical testing, and follow-up procedures  
as required by R 325.70013.  
(c) The employer’s copy of the physician’s written opinion.  
(d) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by  
R 325.70013(6).  
(3) An employer shall assure that employee medical records that are required by this  
rule are kept confidential and are not disclosed or reported without the employee’s  
express written consent to any person within or outside the workplace, except as required  
by this rule or as may be required or permitted by law.  
(4) An employer shall maintain employee medical records for not less than the  
duration of employment plus 30 years in accordance with General Industry and  
Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 470. “Employee Medical Records and  
Trade Secrets,” as referenced in R 325.70001.  
(5) An employer shall develop and maintain training records for each category A  
employee. Training records shall be maintained for 3 years beyond the date that the  
training occurred.  
(6) Training records shall include all of the following information:  
(a) The dates of the training sessions.  
(b) The contents or a summary of the training sessions.  
(c) The names and qualifications of persons who conduct the training.  
(d) The names and job titles of all persons who attend the training sessions.  
(7) An employer shall ensure that all records that are required to be maintained by  
these rules are made available, upon request, to representatives of the department or the  
director for examination and copying.  
(8) An employer shall ensure that employee training records are provided, upon  
request, for examination and copying to employees, employee representatives, and the  
director in accordance with General Industry and Construction Safety and Health  
Standard Part 470. “Employee Medical Records and Trade Secrets,” as referenced in  
R 325.70001.  
Page 17  
(9) An employer shall ensure that employee medical records are provided, upon  
request, for examination and copying to the subject employee, to anyone who has the  
written consent of the subject employee, and to the director in accordance with General  
Industry and Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 470. “Employee Medical  
Records and Trade Secrets,” as referenced in R 325.70001.  
(10) An employer shall comply with the requirements that involve the transfer of  
records in General Industry and Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 470.  
“Employee Medical Records and Trade Secrets,” as referenced in R 325.70001.  
(11) All of the following provisions apply to a sharps injury log:  
(a) An employer shall establish and maintain a sharps injury log for the recording of  
percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps. The information in the sharps injury log  
shall be recorded and maintained in a manner that protects the confidentiality of the  
injured employee. At a minimum, a sharps injury log shall contain all of the following  
information:  
(i) The type and brand of device involved in the incident.  
(ii) The work unit or work area where the exposure incident occurred.  
(iii) An explanation of how the incident occurred.  
(b) The requirement to establish and maintain a sharps injury log applies to any  
employer who is required to maintain a log of occupational injuries and illnesses as  
prescribed in MIOSHA Safety and Health Standard Part 11. “Recording and Reporting of  
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,” as referenced in R 325.70001.  
(c) A sharps injury log shall be maintained for the period required as prescribed in  
MIOSHA Safety and Health Standard Part 11. “Recording and Reporting of Occupational  
Injuries and Illnesses,” as referenced in R 325.70001.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2021 MR 8, Eff. Apr. 27, 2021.  
R 325.70016 Information and training.  
Rule 16. (1) An employer shall ensure that all category A employees participate in a  
training program provided at no cost to the employees and during working hours.  
(2) Training shall be provided at the time of initial assignment to category A work or  
within 90 days after the effective date of these rules, whichever is later, and at least  
annually thereafter. If an employee has received training on bloodborne pathogens in the  
year preceding the effective date of these rules, only training with respect to requirements  
of this rule that were not included in the previous training need to be provided.  
(3) An employer shall provide additional training when changes, such as the  
modification of tasks or procedures or the institution of new tasks or procedures, affect an  
employee’s occupational exposure. The additional training may be limited to addressing  
the new exposures created.  
(4) Material appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy,  
and language background of employees shall be used.  
(5) The training program shall contain all of the following elements:  
(a) Accessibility of the copy of these rules and an explanation of the contents of  
these rules, including appendices.  
(b) A general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodborne  
diseases.  
Page 18  
(c) An explanation of the modes of transmission of bloodborne pathogens.  
(d) An explanation of the employer’s exposure control plan, including the standard  
operating procedures, and how an employee can access the written plan.  
(e) An explanation of the appropriate methods for recognizing tasks and other  
activities that may involve exposure to blood and other potentially infectious material.  
(f) An explanation of the use and limitations of practices that will prevent or reduce  
exposure, including appropriate engineering controls, work practices, and personal  
protective equipment.  
(g) Information on all of the following with respect to personal protective clothing  
and equipment:  
(i) Types.  
(ii) Proper use.  
(iii) Limitations.  
(iv) Location.  
(v) Removal.  
(vi) Handling.  
(vii) Decontamination.  
(viii) Disposal.  
(h) An explanation of the basis for selecting protective clothing and equipment.  
(i) Information on the hepatitis B vaccine and postexposure prophylaxis, including  
all of the following information:  
(i) Availability.  
(ii) Efficacy.  
(iii) Safety.  
(iv) The benefits of being vaccinated.  
(v) Method of administration.  
(vi) That vaccination is free of charge.  
(j) Information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an  
emergency involving blood or other potentially infectious material.  
(k) An explanation of the procedure to follow if an exposure incident occurs,  
including the method of reporting the incident, and the medical follow-up and counseling  
that will be made available.  
(l) An explanation of the signs and labels or color coding required by R 325.70014.  
(6) Employees in HIV or HBV research laboratories and HIV/HBV production  
facilities shall receive the following initial training in addition to the training  
requirements specified in subrule (5) of this rule:  
(a) Employees shall be trained in, and demonstrate proficiency in, standard  
microbiological practices and techniques and in the practices and operations specific to  
the facility before being allowed to work with HIV and HBV.  
(b) Employees shall be experienced in the handling of human pathogens or tissue  
cultures before working with HIV and HBV.  
(c) A training program shall be provided to employees who have not had experience  
in handling human pathogens. Initial work activities shall not include the handling of  
infectious agents. A progression of work activities shall be assigned as techniques are  
learned and proficiency is developed. An employee shall participate in work activities  
that involve infectious agents only after proficiency has been demonstrated.  
Page 19  
(7) Training shall be conducted in the following manner:  
(a) At the time of initial assignment to tasks where occupational exposure may take  
place and at least annually thereafter.  
(b) Training sessions shall afford employees ample opportunity for discussion and  
the answering of questions by a knowledgeable trainer.  
(c) The person conducting the training shall be knowledgeable in the subject matter  
covered by the elements contained in the training program as it relates to the workplace  
that the training will address.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70017 Rescinded.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 325.70018 Rescinded.  
History: 1993 AACS; 1996 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
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