DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 14. CONVEYORS  
R 408.11401 Scope.  
Rule 1401. This part applies to the construction, maintenance, and operation of  
conveyors and conveying machinery in, about, or around employment. This part does  
not apply to industrial trucks, underground mining conveyors, passenger conveyors,  
stacker cranes, driverless electronic tugs, or construction equipment.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11402 Referenced standards.  
Rule 1402. The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory  
Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143 or at the following website:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time of  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(b) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 7. “Guards for Power  
Transmission,” R 408.10701 to R 408.10765.  
History: 2017 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.11403 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 1403. (1) "Aisle" means a path of travel for vehicles and employees.  
(2) "Belt conveyor" means an endless belt operating between a drive and a tail-end,  
with or without bend terminals, and over idler rolls or slider beds that handles bulk  
materials, packages, or objects placed directly on the belt. See figure 2.  
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(3) "Belt tripper" means a device incorporating a system of pulleys that cause a  
conveyor belt to load or unload material at 1 or more points along the length of a belt  
conveyor. See figure 3.  
(4) "Bucket, gravity discharge or pivoted bucket conveyor" means a series of  
buckets mounted between 2 endless chains or on a belt which may operate in horizontal,  
inclined or vertical paths. See figure 4.  
(5) "Conveyor" means a horizontal, inclined or vertical device for moving or  
transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a predetermined path by design and  
having points of loading or discharge fixed or selective.  
(6) "Crossover" means a stile-like device used to cross over a conveyor or machine.  
History: 1979 AC; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.11404 Definitions; D to I.  
Rule 1404. (1) "Declined conveyor" means a conveyor transporting down a slope.  
(2) "Extendable conveyor" means a conveyor which may be lengthened or  
shortened by power to suit operating needs.  
(3) "Hanger" means a bearing, housing or frame which supports a shaft below a  
point at which the hanger is attached to the conveyor frame, trough or other structure.  
(4) "Hinged section" means a section of conveyor equipped with  
mechanism for movable service.  
a
hinge  
(5) "Horizontal reciprocating or walking beam conveyor" means  
a
reciprocating beam or beams that through hinged flights, special fixtures or other means  
advances material in a horizontal plane. See figure 7.  
(6) "Inclined conveyor" means a conveyor transporting up a slope.  
(7) "Indexing" means the controlled starting or stopping of a conveyor by distance  
or time.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11405 Definitions; L to N.  
Rule 1405. (1) "Live roller conveyor" means a series of rollers over which objects  
are moved by application of power to some or all of the rollers.  
(2) "Means of egress" means a continuous path of travel from any point in a  
building to the open air outside at ground level.  
(3) "Monorail or trolley conveyor" means a series of trolleys supported from or  
within an overhead track and connected by an endless propelling medium, such as a  
chain, cable or other linkage, with loads usually suspended from the trolley.  
(4) "Nip point" means that point where a moving object creates a pinch or shearing  
action with a fixed or another moving object.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11406 Definitions; P.  
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Rule 1406. (1) "Passageway" means a path of travel for foot traffic only.  
(2) "Pinch point" means a point at which it is possible to be caught between  
moving parts of a machine or between moving and stationary parts of a machine, or  
between the material and any part of a machine.  
(3) "Pneumatic conveyor" means a system of tubes or ducts through which objects  
or bulk materials are conveyed by a pressure or vacuum system. See figure 5.  
(4) "Portable conveyor" means a transportable conveyor, usually having supports  
which provide mobility. See figure 6.  
(5) "Pulley" means a wheel, usually cylindrical but sometimes polygonal in cross  
section, with the wheel's center board for mounting on a shaft and used to transmit  
power or change direction.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11407 Definitions; R to V.  
Rule 1407. (1) "Rollback" means an uncontrolled run of a conveyor down an  
inclined slope opposite to the direction of intended travel.  
(2) "Roller conveyor" means a series of rollers supported in a frame over which  
packages or objects are moved manually, by gravity or by power. See figure 8.  
(3) "Runaway" means an uncontrolled run of a conveyor on a declined slope in the  
direction of intended travel.  
(4) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of material or  
object to the maximum designed load or stress applied when in use.  
(5) "Safety limit switch" means a final device used to disconnect power to a  
conveyor in case of control or operator failure.  
(6) "Slat conveyor" means 1 or more endless chains to which non-overlapping, non-  
interlocking, spaced slats are attached to form a moving support for packages or objects  
being conveyed. See figure 9.  
(7) "Suspended tray conveyor" means pendant trays or carriers attached to 1 or more  
endless chains which receive and deliver packages or objects at 1 or more locations. See  
figure 10.  
(8) "Vertical reciprocating conveyor" means a conveyor with power or  
counterbalanced gravity actuated carriers which receive and discharge material to other  
elevations.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS.  
R 408.11411 Employers' and employees' general responsibilities.  
Rule 1411. (1) An employer shall provide training to an employee working on or by  
a conveyor regarding the hazards and safeguards of such work.  
(2) An employer shall establish an inspection program to maintain conveyor  
components in a condition which does not constitute a hazard to the employee.  
(3) An employee shall not ride, cross or walk on a conveyor unless it is designed for  
riding or crossovers are provided as specified in R 408.11425, except a floor-level  
slat type conveyor moving at not more than 60 feet per minute. A chain or cable  
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conveyor used to tow objects does not require a crossover if the conveyor is not more  
than 8 inches above the floor, 12 inches in width and painted yellow in color.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11412 Maintenance.  
Rule 1412. (1) Lubrication shall be accomplished by 1 of the following methods:  
(a) Scheduling when a conveyor can be shut off and locked out.  
(b) Automatic pressure or gravity feed system.  
(c) Extension pipe leading to an area outside of guards or away from any hazard.  
(2) Lubrication must comply with General Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards  
for Power Transmission,” as referenced in R 408.11402.  
(3) Repairs or clean up, where unexpected motion would cause injury, shall be done  
when power is off and locked out.  
(4) A walkway or catwalk along a conveyor shall be maintained clear of spills or  
other obstructions which may be a slipping or tripping hazard.  
(5) A flammable cleaning fluid used in splicing of belts shall be kept in a safety  
container. Welding, cutting, or smoking shall not be permitted in the area where  
flammable cleaning fluids are being used.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.11412 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Michigan Register, 2017 MR 4. The memorandum requesting the  
correction was published in Michigan Register, 2017 MR 6.  
DESIGN  
R 408.11421 Guarding.  
Rule 1421. (1) Where a hazard exists, guards must be provided to protect an  
employee from contact with moving parts where adjustments are required when a  
conveyor is in operation.  
(2) A lift or transfer point must have any nip point guarded and must have a means  
of complying with power lockout rules.  
(3) A conveyor that indexes must be guarded so that an employee will not be caught  
or trapped by the sudden movement of the conveyor.  
(4) A conveyor must be guarded so that an employee will not be caught or trapped  
between the conveyor and a stationary or moving part.  
(5) A trolley conveyor installed overhead and dipping to a work station must have a  
guard or barrier in compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2.  
“Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11402, or the area must be  
designated as non-pedestrian and telltales must be hung along the portion of the conveyor  
that dips to protect an employee from accidental injury.  
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(6) An opening for a conveyor through a floor or wall must be guarded in  
compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11402.  
(7) A conveyor passing over a walkway, passageway, or work area must be provided  
with a pan or screen-type guard containing sides sufficient to contain any falling material  
that would cause injury. The designed strength of the guard must be capable of and must  
continue to withstand the maximum impact load.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.11422 Counterweights.  
Rule 1422. (1) A counterweight and its pulleys shall be enclosed pursuant to General  
Industry Safety Standard Part 7 “Guards for Power Transmission,” as referenced in  
R 408.11402.  
(2) A counterweight and its pulleys suspended more than 7 feet above the floor or  
ground, in an area where an employee could walk, shall have an enclosure around the  
area of impact or a catch pan under the counterweight of such strength and design to hold  
the counterweight and pulley from dropping to the ground, floor, or platform.  
(3) A counterweight attached to an arm shall have a bolt fastened near the end of the  
arm or a cable or chain attached to the counterweight to prevent its dropping off the arm.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.11412 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Michigan Register, 2017 MR 4. The memorandum requesting the  
correction was published in Michigan Register, 2017 MR 6.  
R 408.11423 Take-up.  
Rule 1423. Where a spring take-up is used to maintain tension on a conveyor,  
the spring and fastening assembly shall be constructed to retain the spring assembly in  
case of breakage.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11424 Hinged sections.  
Rule 1424. (1) A manually operated hinged section for employee passage through a  
gravity roller conveyor, chute, belt, or other type of conveyor that requires more than a  
40-pound lifting effort to operate shall be counterbalanced.  
(2) A power operated section for employee passage shall be provided with a  
mechanical safety device which shall prevent the section from falling in case of power  
failure.  
(3) A power conveyor having a hinged section used for the purpose of clearing a  
passageway shall be designed so that the section cannot be raised while the conveyor  
Page 5  
is in operation or the material being conveyed shall be stopped when the section is  
raised.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11425 Crossovers.  
Rule 1425. (1) A clearance of 80 inches above a floor or platform must be  
maintained as a means of egress. Where a conveyor reduces this clearance, a crossover,  
passageway, or different means of egress must be provided.  
(2) A crossover must be in compliance with General Industry Safety and Health  
Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.11402.  
(3) A crossover that cannot clear packages or objects on the conveyor must be  
hinged to swing out of the way or a sensing device must be provided to stop the conveyor  
if the crossover has not been moved.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.11426 Passageways and walkways.  
Rule 1426. (1) A passageway under a conveyor shall have not less than 5 feet of  
headroom except a main aisle shall have not less than 80 inches of headroom. Where the  
headroom is less than 80 inches, telltales and illumination of not less than 10 foot  
candles shall be provided to indicate low headroom.  
(2) A maintenance walkway shall be not less than 18 inches wide where it runs  
along a conveyor.  
(3) A walkway along a conveyor in a pit or tunnel shall have illumination of  
at least 10 foot candles when an employee is required to work in the area.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11427 Safety factors.  
Rule 1427. (1) Structural supports of a conveyor shall be designed and constructed  
with a minimum design safety factor of at least 3 which shall include static and dynamic  
loads.  
(2) A hook or carrier used on a monorail and a trolley conveyor to carry objects shall  
be designed with a minimum safety factor of 5 and maintained to hold the object or  
carriers without creating a hazard.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11428 Adjustment.  
Rule 1428. A conveyor capable of adjustment to variable fixed elevations shall be  
equipped with a locking device to hold the conveyor at any altitude where failure to  
hold would create a hazard to an employee.  
Page 6  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11429 Rollbacks and runaways.  
Rule 1429. Rollbacks and runaways on a conveyor shall be controlled by 1 or more  
of the following:  
(a) Track design.  
(b) Back stops.  
(c) Ratchets or one-way clutch on drive pulleys.  
(d) Anti-runaway devices.  
(e) Automatically applied brakes.  
History: 1979 AC.  
ELECTRICAL  
R 408.11431 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11432 Starting.  
Rule 1432. (1) A starting button, except a control button in a console for a  
manually programed multi-conveyor system, shall be equipped with a device to prevent  
accidental actuation.  
(2) A powered conveyor, which would cause injury when started, shall not be started  
until employees in the area are alerted by a signal or by a person in authority that the  
conveyor is about to start.  
(3) Power to a conveyor shall be wired so that after an interruption of electrical  
service, the conveyor shall not automatically restart upon resumption of electrical  
service.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11433 Stop devices.  
Rule 1433. (1) An emergency stop device shall be available at each point of  
operation where a hazard exists and within reach of an employee at that point.  
(2) An emergency stop device of the momentary-contact type shall have a means of  
being maintained by a device in the "off" position.  
(3) If more than 1 stop device is located along a conveyor, the devices shall be wired  
so that the conveyor can be made re-startable only at the location where stopped.  
(4) A stop device, except a pull cord, shall be distinguished by its red color.  
Page 7  
(5) Conveyors in a series shall be electrically interlocked so that when any conveyor  
in the series is stopped for any reason, the initial stopping shall cause the upstream  
conveyors to stop if continued operation creates a hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS.  
R 408.11434 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11435 Grounding.  
Rule 1435. Where an explosion hazard exists, such as, but not limited to, dust or fumes, a  
means of draining the potential static electricity build up shall be provided and used.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11436 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS.  
SPECIFIC CONVEYORS  
R 408.11441 Auger and screw conveyors.  
Rule 1441. An auger or screw conveyor, with an opening not screened or covered  
and secured by bolts or clamps, shall be equipped with an interlocked cover which  
shall cut the power when raised and not start until the cover is replaced and the starter  
actuated.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11442 Belt conveyors.  
Rule 1442. (1) A belt conveyor using a belt tripper or other moving deflector  
which requires an operator to travel on the belt tripper shall have the operator's platform  
designed to safeguard the operator from falling or coming in contact with moving or  
stationary parts.  
(2) A nip point at a pulley shall be guarded by an enclosure or barrier constructed to  
prevent access by an employee's body members or loose clothing.  
(3) A belt conveyor for bulk material shall have built up sides where material  
spilling over the sides is a hazard.  
(4) A pulley with rotating shaft shall have projecting shaft ends covered or cut  
flush with the hanger.  
Page 8  
(5) A shuttle or movable hopper mounted on wheels shall have sweeps fastened  
ahead of the wheels with an opening of not less than 3/8 inch between the sweep and  
the rail.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11443 Belt trippers.  
Rule 1443. A belt tripper, with or without an operator, shall be equipped with a  
safety limit switch and a fixed stop to prevent overrun at each end of the runway which  
shall shut off the power if the tripper moves too close to the end of the runway.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11444 Bucket, pivoted bucket and gravity-discharge conveyors.  
Rule 1444. A bucket, pivoted bucket, or gravity-discharge conveyor shall be  
enclosed with a guard or barrier to protect operating personnel.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11445 Carrier and trolley conveyors.  
Rule 1445. A manually powered carrier or trolley conveyor shall have a protective  
device on the carrier or rail to prevent the carrier from dropping off the rail or off the  
end of the rail.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11446 Extendable conveyors.  
Rule 1446. An extendable conveyor shall be equipped with a device located on  
the outermost end which shall stop movement of the conveyor when contact is made  
by the device.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11447 Pneumatic conveyors.  
Rule 1447. (1) A pneumatic conveyor shall be designed so that doors to pressure  
vessels cannot be opened when there is a positive internal pressure.  
(2) A gasket holding line pressures shall be shielded to prevent a gasket leak  
from projecting the conveyed material into a work area if the material would cause a  
hazard.  
(3) A receiver or storage bin shall be equipped with full bin indicators or controls to  
prevent overfilling, if overfilling will create a hazard.  
Page 9  
(4) A pneumatic conveyor carrying oxidizable materials shall be designed for  
hazards, such as but not limited to explosion, fire or corrosion.  
(5) A pneumatic conveyor serving an area containing contaminated air shall be  
designed so that the contaminated air cannot be transported to another area.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11448 Portable conveyors.  
Rule 1448. The stability of a portable conveyor shall be provided by 1 or more of  
the following:  
(a) Securing to a fixed object.  
(b) Use of outriggers.  
(c) A base width of not less than 1/3 the height.  
(d) A base as wide as the distance from the floor to the center of gravity.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11449 Reciprocating conveyors.  
Rule 1449. (1) A reciprocating conveyor shall have inside and outside nip points  
guarded.  
(2) If the reciprocating member of a horizontal reciprocating conveyor moves  
within 18 inches of a wall or other object, a barrier shall be installed at the end to  
prevent access by an employee.  
(3) A vertical reciprocating conveyor which is manually loaded or unloaded  
shall be guarded with an interlock door or gate to prevent an employee being caught  
within a nip point.  
(4) The carriage and controls of a vertical reciprocating conveyor shall be designed  
and installed to prevent use of the conveyor as a man lift.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11450 Roller conveyors.  
Rule 1450. (1) A roller conveyor with a hinged section or with an open discharge  
end shall be equipped with a stop device projecting above the rollers which shall prevent  
a package or object from being discharged off the conveyor unless it is so designed to  
discharge.  
(2) Nip points between power and idler rolls or delivery conveyors and idler rolls  
shall be eliminated by 1 of the following:  
(a) The idler roller set in a 45 degree inclined slot in the direction of travel.  
(b) Steel plates welded between the rolls with a maximum of 1/8 inch between plate  
and rolls.  
(c) The idler roller set in a horizontal slot and connected with an interlock switch  
which will stop the conveyor.  
Page 10  
(d) A device which offers equal or better protection may be substituted for  
subdivision (a), (b), or (c) of this subrule.  
(3) The nip point between a belt and a carrier roller on a belt drive live roller  
conveyor shall be protected by pop-out type carrier rollers or steel plates as prescribed in  
subrule (2)(a) and (b) of this rule. The belt conveyor shall be guarded as specified in  
R 408.11442.  
History: 1979 AC; 2017 AACS.  
R 408.11451 Slat conveyors.  
Rule 1451. (1) A slat conveyor with the slat spaced 1 inch or more apart and moving  
at floor level or in work areas shall have a solid smooth bed under the slats to prevent a  
shear hazard.  
(2) A slat conveyor with slats more than 1/4 inch, but less than 1 inch apart, and  
moving at floor level or in a work area shall not have any nip point less than 4 inches  
below the slats.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11452 Suspended tray or vertical opposed shelf chain conveyors.  
Rule 1452. A suspended tray or vertical opposed shelf chain conveyor which is  
manually loaded or unloaded shall have safety devices, such as but not limited to lintel  
and sill switches or deflectors, to safeguard an employee.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11461 Clothing, jewelry and fire precautions.  
Rule 1461. (1) Loose clothing and jewelry, including, but not limited to, long or  
floppy sleeves or pants with large pantlegs or cuffs, rings, wrist watches, bracelets, ties,  
and scarves shall not be worn around conveyors where they constitute a hazard to an  
employee.  
(2) Where combustibles, such as, but not limited to, coal or grain, are conveyed or  
stored, and where a fire caused by slippage between a drive pulley and a belt would  
create a hazard, the conveyor shall be equipped with a device so adjusted that a 5% loss  
of full load rated speed of the belt shall shut down the belt drive.  
History: 1979 AC.  
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