DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 17. REFUSE PACKER UNITS  
R 408.11701 Scope.  
Rule 1701. This part applies to the safe design, use and maintenance of mobile  
and stationary equipment used in the collection and compaction of solid waste in,  
around, or about places of employment.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11704 Definitions; C to H.  
Rule 1704. (1) "Container" means a bin used for collection of refuse at a point of  
origin.  
(2) "Hopper" means a part on a refuse packer unit for receiving refuse.  
(3) "Hydraulic piping" means flexible or rigid tubing used to transfer fluids under  
pressure.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11705 Definitions; L to P.  
Rule 1705. (1) "Loading sill" means the ledge of a hopper over which refuse is  
deposited into the hopper.  
(2) "Mobile refuse packer unit" means a motor powered vehicle equipped with a  
body which receives solid waste material and compacts it under pressure.  
(3) "Packer blade or panel" means a metal plate which moves the solid waste  
material from a hopper into a holding unit.  
(4) "Pinch point" means a point at which it is possible to be caught between  
moving parts of a machine or between moving and stationary parts of a machine.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11706 Definitions; R, S.  
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Rule 1706. (1) "Receiving box" means a receptacle which receives refuse from a  
stationary refuse packer unit.  
(2) "Refuse" means putrescible and nonputrescible solid wastes, except body  
wastes, and includes garbage, rubbish, ashes, incinerator ash, incinerator residue,  
street cleanings, and solid market and industrial wastes.  
(3) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of material or  
object to the maximum designed load or stress applied when in use.  
(4) "Stationary refuse packer unit" means a unit which remains at 1 location  
and receives solid waste material and compacts it under pressure.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11711 Employer responsibilities.  
Rule 1711. An employer shall:  
(a) Provide instruction and training before assigning an employee to a refuse  
packer unit.  
(b) Use a refuse packer unit within its maximum rated capacity.  
(c) Maintain a refuse packer unit within its maximum rated capacity.  
(d) Establish and maintain a lockout procedure as prescribed in subrules  
(3) and (4) of R 408.11715.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11713 Employee responsibilities.  
Rule 1713. An employee shall:  
(a) Use the guards and other safety features provided on a refuse packer unit.  
(b) Use personal protective devices provided by the employer.  
(c) Use a refuse packer unit only after he is instructed and trained in its safe  
operation.  
(d) Use a refuse packer unit within the maximum rated capacity of the  
equipment.  
(e) Report damage to or failure of a refuse packer unit.  
(f) Not eject or dump a loaded refuse packer unit until all employees are clear of  
the rear of the unit.  
(g) Not ride on the rear steps of a mobile packer unit when it is backing up.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11715 Operation of refuse packer units.  
Rule 1715. (1) An employee shall not pass or work under any elevated  
equipment or part thereof, except when protected by a truck cab or when the elevated  
part is supported by a prop extending to the vehicle, which prop shall:  
(a) Be of such strength as to sustain the load.  
(b) Maintain support in case of movement of the vehicle or mechanical failure.  
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(2) An operator shall not eject or dump a loaded unit until all employees are  
clear of the rear of the unit.  
(3) A lockout procedure for a refuse packer unit shall be established and  
followed whereby the power shall be shut off and the key removed before and  
during repairs to the packer or compaction mechanism, except during maintenance  
testing.  
(4) A power source of a stationary refuse packer unit to be repaired, serviced or  
set-up shall be locked out by each employee while doing such work. Any residual  
pressure shall be relieved before and during the work.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11716 Hoisting cables and chains.  
Rule 1716. (1) A chain and its component parts, other than alloy steel chain  
having a minimum tensile strength of 125,000 pounds per square inch, shall have a  
designed safety factor of not less than 5. Alloy chain shall not be used in excess of the  
working load in straight tension for its size as prescribed in table 1.  
(2) A hoist cable and its component parts for mobile refuse packer units shall have  
a designed safety factor of not less than 2 based on the applied pull.  
(3) A hoist cable shall be inspected on installation and monthly thereafter.  
(4) A hoist cable shall not be used if, in any length equal to 8 diameters of the  
cable, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10% of the total number of  
wires, or if the cable shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, kinks or bird  
caging.  
(5) Where a "U" type cable clamp or clip is applied, it shall comply with table 2.  
(6) The hydraulic relief valve in a cable operating system shall be set at the  
manufacturer's rating and sealed.  
(7) A hoist cable bent to form an eye shall be equipped with a metal thimble.  
Figure for 408.11716 (1 of 2)  
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Note: There is only one correct method of installing wire rope clips.They should  
be attached to rope ends as shown in photograph above. The base of each clip should  
bear against the live, or long rope end, and the U-bolt should bear against the dead or  
short rope end.  
Figure for 408.11716 (2 of 2)  
History: 1979 AC.  
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R 408.11717 Hydraulic piping.  
Rule 1717. (1) Hydraulic piping shall have a designed safety factor of not less  
than 4.  
(2) A refuse packer unit with a leaking hydraulic system, in excess of normal  
seepage, which constitutes a hazard to an employee or potential malfunction of  
equipment, shall not be used until it is repaired.  
(3) An employee shall be protected from contact with hydraulic piping capable  
of causing a burn. The hydraulic piping shall be located or guarded to prevent  
damage from being struck or by striking other objects.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11718 Lights.  
Rule 1718. A refuse packer unit used during hours of darkness shall have light of  
not less than 5 footcandles at the loading or hook-up point.  
History: 1979 AC.  
MOBILE UNITS  
R 408.11721 Riding steps.  
Rule 1721. (1) A riding step provided for an employee making collections on a  
mobile refuse packer unit must have both of the following:  
(a) A slip resistant surface.  
(b) A maximum height of 18 inches from the roadway with the mobile unit empty.  
(2) A grab handle must be provided for each employee using a riding step as  
prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to R 408.10241 of the Michigan Administrative Code.  
History: 1979 AC; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.11722 Warning devices.  
Rule 1722. An audible or visual warning device shall be installed on a mobile  
packer unit to signal when the unit moves in reverse so as to warn an employee at the  
rear of the unit.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11723 Loading and unloading.  
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Rule 1723. (1) A mechanism such as, but not limited to, a hoisting motor or lifting  
arm, used for loading or lifting a container, shall be constructed and maintained  
to handle the designed rating of a mobile refuse packer unit.  
(2) On a mobile unit, except a front loader, when loading mechanically, a locking  
device shall be provided to prevent dislodgement of a container during the dumping  
operation.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11724. Controls.  
Rule 1724. (1) A side loading mobile refuse packer unit with a top loading hopper  
shall have a fixed barrier or a movable barrier interlocked with the power source if a  
pinch point is created by the compaction mechanism.  
(2) A refuse packer unit with a side loading door shall have the door interlocked with  
the power source of the compaction mechanism when the bottom of the loading opening  
is less than 6 feet vertically from the loading surface.  
(3) Loading compaction controls for a rear loading unit shall be located so that the  
operator using the compaction controls has a view of the loading sill.  
(4) Operator controls for a mobile unit shall be designed or located so that  
unintentional activation will not occur.  
(5) Except when guarded as required in R 408.11725(1), a mobile refuse packer unit  
shall be equipped with operator controls that require continuous pressure of both hands  
on the control devices until the packer blade has moved beyond the pinch point created  
where the blade or sweep panel and hopper come together, or shall provide for the blade  
or sweep panel to stop not less than 6 inches nor more than 16 inches from the pinch  
point and require reactivation to complete the cycle. When using the split cycle, a single  
control is sufficient.  
(6) Each control device shall be labeled as to its function.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.11725. Guards.  
Rule 1725. (1) After September 25, 1974, a rear loading mobile refuse packer unit  
shall be guarded to prevent employee access to the pinch point caused by the packing  
cycle by 1 of the following devices:  
(a) A movable barrier designed to withstand repetitive use and remain in alignment and  
prevent the operator from reaching the pinch point created during the packing cycle. The  
barrier shall be provided with a cushion along its entire length where the barrier meets the  
sill to prevent chance of injury. The barrier shall be interlocked with the packing cycle so  
that it is in place before the packer mechanism closes to not less than 6 inches nor more  
than 14 inches of the pinch point.  
(b) An elevating hopper which rises not less than 6 feet above the working surface  
before the packer blade closes to within 6 inches of the hopper sill.  
(c) A fixed or movable barrier or other safety device which will prevent access to the  
pinch point by an employee.  
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(2) An operator of a mobile refuse packer may use the controls prescribed in  
R 408.11724(5) in lieu of fixed or movable barriers.  
(3) An exposed pinch point created by mechanical controls or lifting arms on a mobile  
refuse packer unit shall be guarded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
STATIONARY UNITS  
R 408.11731 Controls.  
Rule 1731. (1) Operator controls on a stationary refuse packer unit shall be  
designed and located to prevent accidental activation.  
(2) The hopper or load opening on a manually controlled stationary refuse  
packer unit shall be visible to the operator from his control station.  
(3) An emergency stop device distinguished by its size or color shall be provided  
at the control station to stop the ram of a stationary refuse packer unit.  
(4) When a stationary refuse packer unit is equipped for direct manual loading  
and the operator is not protected from the pinch point, the control shall require  
continuous pressure and the compactor cycle shall stop when the control is released.  
Such a control shall be a minimum of 6 feet from the pinch point.  
(5) Each control device shall be labeled as to its function.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.11732 Guards.  
Rule 1732. (1) A hopper opening on a stationary refuse packer unit must be guarded  
with a guardrail system in compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard  
Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to R 408.10241 of the Michigan  
Administrative Code.  
(2) A pinch point exposed to contact by an employee must be enclosed or guarded.  
(3) A lifting device used to empty a container at a stationary refuse packer unit must  
have a locking device as prescribed in R 408.11723(2).  
(4) Maintenance access openings must be covered and secured on the compactor.  
The cover must be removable by hand tools or interlocked to the power source.  
(5) A locking device used to couple a receiving box and stationary compactor unit  
must be capable of withstanding the rated pressure of the compactor.  
(6) A receiving box loading device must provide a positive locking action to prevent  
dislodgement during the loading of the box on a vehicle.  
(7) A receiving box loaded on a vehicle for transport must have a retaining device  
other than the loading device.  
History: 1979 AC; 2019 AACS.  
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