DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 20. UNDERHUNG CRANES AND MONORAIL SYSTEMS  
R 408.12001 Scope.  
Rule 2001. This part applies to power-driven cranes, classified as underhung,  
single-leg gantry, and jib, operating on the bottom flange of a track section and to single-  
track monorail systems. This part does not include monorail systems used only to  
transport personnel or to monorail-type conveyor systems commonly referred to as  
overhead trolley conveyors or power and free trolley conveyors. This part does not apply  
to a crane with a manually moved type bridge or trolley.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12002 Adoption of standards by reference.  
Rule 2002. (1) The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standard  
ASME B30.11 “Monorail Systems and Underhung Cranes,” 1993 edition, is adopted by  
reference in these rules and is available from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East,  
Englewood, Colorado, 80112, USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the  
internet at the following website: http://global.ihs.com, at a cost as of the time of  
adoption of these rules of $60.00.  
(2) The standard adopted in these rules is available for inspection at the Department  
of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West  
Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(3) Copies of the standard adopted in these rules may be obtained from the publisher  
or may be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA  
Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing,  
Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus $20.00 for shipping and  
handling.  
(4) The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may  
be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box  
30643, Lansing, MI, 48909-8143 or via the internet at the following website:  
Page 1  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time of  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 1. “General Provisions,”  
R 408.10001 to R 408.10098.  
(b) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(c) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 33. “Personal Protective  
Equipment,” R 408.13301 to R 408.13398.  
History: 1990 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.12004 Definitions; H to M.  
Rule 2004. (1) "Hooker" means an employee who attaches the load to the hook.  
(2) "Hot metal crane" means a crane or monorail system which transports molten  
metal.  
(3) "Jib crane" means a crane with a horizontal arm (jib) designed to rotate around  
a vertical member.  
(4) "Modified" means a change in design or rating.  
(5) "Monorail system" means an overhead track from which hoisting equipment  
travels to transport loads and includes curves, switches, transfer devices, drop  
sections, hangers, and related equipment.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12005 Definitions; P to U.  
Rule 2005. (1) "Preformed" means to permanently shape wires and strands before  
fabrication into wire rope.  
(2) "Pulpit" means an operator compartment located at a fixed position remote  
from the crane or monorail equipment.  
(3) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a material to the  
maximum designed stress.  
(4) "Seizing" means to bind the end of a wire rope with a soft annealed iron wire.  
(5) "Side pull" means to pull a load with a hoist, chain, or cable other than vertically.  
(6) "Single-leg gantry crane" means a crane similar to an underhung crane,  
except that the bridge for carrying the trolley is rigidly supported on one end by a  
vertical leg mounted on an end truck.  
(7) "Swaged socket" means a fitting into which wire rope is inserted and attached by  
cold forming.  
(8) "Underhung crane" means a crane with a traveling bridge which is suspended  
under its runway track system. A hoist trolley may be underhung or top running.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION, AND TESTING  
Page 2  
R 408.12011 Underhung cranes and monorail systems; adoption of standards by  
reference.  
Rule 2011. An underhung crane or monorail system installed, or that portion  
modified, after November 5, 1997, shall be in compliance with the requirements of  
ASME B30.11 “Monorail Systems and Underhung Cranes,” 1993 edition, as adopted in  
R 408.12002.  
History: 1990 AACS; 1997 AACS.; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12012 Cranes and hoists or lifting devices of monorail systems;  
marking of rated capacity.  
Rule 2012. (1) The rated capacity of a crane shall be legibly marked on the crane. If  
the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall be legibly marked with its  
rated capacity.  
(2) Each hoist or lifting device of a monorail system shall be legibly marked with  
its rated capacity.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12013 Safety factor for hoisting cables; wire rope.  
Rule 2013. (1) The designed safety factor for the hoisting cable on a hot metal  
crane shall be not less than 8 and on any other crane or monorail system shall be not  
less than 5.  
(2) Wire rope, with an independent wire rope core, shall be used on all molten  
metal applications and in an area where the environmental atmosphere will cause  
deterioration of a hemp center.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12014 Single-leg gantry crane; positive mechanical restraint.  
Rule 2014. A single-leg gantry crane used out-of-doors shall be provided with a  
positive mechanical restraint to secure the crane against wind movement while parked.  
If clamps act on the rail heads, beads or weld flash on the rail heads shall be ground  
off.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12015 Controls.  
Rule 2015. (1) Rope controls shall be marked for a floor-operated crane or monorail  
system to show the direction of travel.  
Page 3  
(2) A pendant, radio, cab, or pulpit control station shall be equipped with a positive  
stop device, colored red, to disconnect all motors.  
(3) The controller in a cab or pulpit shall be legibly marked to indicate function  
and direction.  
(4) When the controller of a pendant or radio-controlled type crane is released from  
the "on" position, the controller shall automatically return to the "off" position.  
(5) A transmitter for a radio-controlled crane or a monorail system shall be stored  
in a locked cabinet or a supervised storage area when not in use.  
(6) A crane or monorail system shall be provided with an operable overtravel  
limit device in the hoisting direction. The device shall be adjusted so that it is tripped  
under all conditions to prevent contact of the hook or block with the hoist or trolley  
frame.  
(7) A crane or monorail system which is not equipped with a spring-return  
controller or momentary contact push button shall be provided with a device which  
disconnects all motors from the line on failure of power and which does not permit  
restarting until the controller handle is brought to the "off" position or until a reset switch  
or button is operated.  
(8) The pendant push-button enclosure shall be grounded and legibly marked for  
identification of functions.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12016 Access, clearances, and barriers.  
Rule 2016. (1) Safe access must be provided to a cab operated crane by a fixed  
ladder, stairway, or walkway.  
(2) Conductors of the open type that are mounted on the crane runway, bridge, or  
monorail beams or overhead must be located or guarded so that an operator at the normal  
operator’s position or persons entering or leaving the cab or crane footwalk could not,  
under normal conditions, come into contact with them.  
(3) A catwalk on a crane must have a guardrail system in compliance with General  
Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,as referenced  
in R 408.12002. A floor opening in a crane platform, if equipped with a hinged cover,  
need not be equipped with a standard barrier. The cover must be kept closed, except  
when an employee is entering or leaving the opening.  
(4) Safe clearance must be provided between fixed objects and the monorail system  
where there is employee exposure.  
History: 1990 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.12017 Hoisting brakes; equipment handling molten metal.  
Rule 2017. (1) Each independent hoisting unit on a crane or monorail hoisting  
equipment handling molten metal shall be equipped with not less than 2 holding brakes.  
(2) A single brake is permitted where a hot metal monorail hoist is equipped with  
physical stops limiting ladle travel.  
Page 4  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12018 Attaching hoisting units.  
Rule 2018. Unless the hoisting unit is lug or deck-mounted or an integral part  
of the trolley, the unit shall be attached to the trolley by a clevis or safety hook.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12019 Trolley and bridge stops.  
Rule 2019. (1) Stops shall be provided at ends of travel of the trolley or bridge.  
(2) Stops shall be provided at open ends other than the ends of runs. These may  
occur at track switches, interlocking cranes, track opener, lift-out section, turntables,  
and drop, lift, or transfer sections. Such stops shall meet the same safety requirements as  
the end stop.  
(3) Stops shall be provided to resist forces of impact of a crane or trolley carrying  
its rated load at 40% of the rated speed.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
OPERATORS AND OPERATIONS  
R 408.12021 Operator selection; cab-operated or pulpit-operated equipment.  
Rule 2021. (1) An employer shall be able to demonstrate that an employee is trained  
and qualified to operate the equipment prior to authorizing the employee to operate the  
equipment. A permit system may be used to comply with this rule.  
(2) An employee assigned to operate cab-operated or pulpit-operated equipment  
shall meet the minimum requirements stated in this rule and shall be retested at least once  
every 3 years or more often when there is reason to doubt safe operating ability.  
History: 1990 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.12022 Operator training.  
Rule 2022. An employer shall train a prospective operator before assignment as  
an operator of a crane or monorail system. Training shall include all of the following:  
(a) Capabilities of equipment and attachments.  
(b) Purpose, use, and limitation of controls.  
(c) How to make daily visual inspections.  
(d) Practice in operating assigned equipment through its functions necessary to  
perform the required jobs.  
(e) A review of applicable state standards.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
Page 5  
R 408.12023 Operator testing; cab-operated  
equipment.  
or  
pulpit-operated  
Rule 2023. An employer shall test the knowledge and ability of an employee  
before authorizing the employee to operate a crane or cab-operated or pulpit-  
operated monorail equipment. The test shall determine all of the following with  
respect to the employee:  
(a) Operating ability.  
(b) Knowledge of equipment.  
(c) Knowledge of daily checks.  
(d) Knowledge of the use of fire extinguishers.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12024 Limitations on use of a cab-operated crane or monorail  
equipment.  
Rule 2024. (1) An employer shall limit the use of a cab-operated crane or monorail  
equipment to the following:  
(a) An employee who has been trained and qualified to operate the type of crane or  
monorail equipment to which the employee is assigned.  
(b) A learner under the direct supervision of a qualified person.  
(c) Its maximum rated capacity.  
(d) Maintenance personnel, during performance of their duties, who have been  
trained and qualified to operate that type of equipment.  
(2) An employer shall establish and implement a safe method, applicable to  
authorized employees, for boarding and leaving a cab-operated crane or monorail  
equipment.  
(3) An unauthorized employee shall not enter a cab or pulpit.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12025 Reporting defects in crane or monorail equipment.  
Rule 2025. (1) An operator shall report any safety defects in a crane or monorail  
equipment to the operator's supervisor.  
(2) A crane or monorail system in need of repair shall have a warning or "out of  
order" sign placed at the operator control station if the crane or monorail system is to be  
left unattended.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12026 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 2026. For personal protective equipment requirements, see General Industry  
Safety Standard Part 33 “Personal Protective Equipment,” as referenced in R 408.12002.  
History: 1990 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
Page 6  
R 408.12031 Operation of equipment; instructions.  
Rule 2031. (1) An operator, when starting on duty, shall comply with the following  
provisions:  
(a) Not close the main switch, disconnect, or emergency contactor until the operator  
checks to see if anyone is on the crane or monorail system.  
(b) Not close the main switch if a warning sign is on the crane or monorail  
system, hook, or main switch.  
(c) Function test the controls and brake or brakes.  
(2) When a load approaches the rated load, the operator shall test the hoisting brake  
or brakes by raising the load a few inches and applying the brake or brakes.  
(3) A hoisting limit switch on equipment or hoisting means shall not be used as an  
operating control unless the equipment is also equipped with a backup limit switch.  
(4) A load shall not be lowered below a point where less than 2 full wraps of wire  
rope remain on the hoisting drum.  
(5) When there is doubt concerning the safety of equipment, an operator shall stop  
the crane or monorail equipment and report the condition creating this doubt to the  
operator's supervisor.  
(6) Before leaving a cab-operated crane or monorail equipment with powered  
trolley and hoist unattended, an operator shall land any attached load, place the  
controllers in the "off" position, and open the main switch or disconnect switch.  
Before closing a main switch or disconnect on a cab-operated crane or monorail system,  
the operator shall make sure all controllers are in the "off" position.  
(7) An operator of a floor-controlled crane or monorail equipment shall land any  
attached load before leaving the crane.  
(8) An operator leaving an outdoor crane shall secure it as prescribed in R  
408.12014.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12032 Signals; table 1.  
Rule 2032. (1) An operator shall respond to a signal only from the employee  
directing a lift. However, the operator shall obey an emergency stop signal from any  
employee at all times. The signals given an operator shall conform to table 1. When 2 or  
more cranes are used to lift a load, a designated employee shall give all signals.  
(2) Table 1 reads as follows:  
Page 7  
Table 1  
BRIDGE TRAVEL.  
Arm extended forward,  
hand open and slightly  
raised, make pushing motion  
in direction of travel.  
LOWER.  
With arm extended  
HOIST.  
With forearm vertical,  
forefinger pointing up,  
move hand in small  
horizontal circle.  
downward,  
forefinger  
pointing down, move hand  
in small horizontal circles.  
TROLLEY TRAVEL.  
Palm up, fingers closed,  
thumb pointing in direction  
of motion, jerk hand  
horizontally.  
STOP.  
Arm Extended, palm  
EMERGENCY STOP.  
Arm extended, palm  
down, move hand rapidly  
right and left.  
down,  
rigidly.  
hold  
position  
MOVE SLOWLY.  
Use one hand to give  
any motion signal and  
MULTIPLE  
TROLLEYS.  
Hold up one finger for  
MAGNET IS  
DISCONNECTED.  
Crane operator spreads  
Page 8  
Table 1  
block marked “1” and two place  
other  
hand both hands apart palms up.  
fingers for block marked motionless in front of hand  
“2”, Regular signals follow. giving the motion signal.  
(Hoist slowly shown as  
example.)  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12033 Lifting.  
Rule 2033. (1) An operator of a crane or monorail system shall not carry a load over  
an employee.  
(2) An employee shall not place his or her body under a load supported only by a  
crane or monorail system.  
(3) A crane or monorail system shall not be used to make a side pull, except where  
it has been specifically established by a qualified person that such a side pull and  
possible consequent load swing will not endanger employees or result in equipment  
deterioration creating a potential hazard.  
(4) Compressed gas containers shall be lifted only by a cradle or enclosed  
platform.  
(5) The rated capacity of a crane or monorail system shall not be exceeded,  
except as required for test purposes.  
(6) When attaching or moving a load, the operator or hooker shall insure that all of  
the following provisions are complied with:  
(a) The hoisting rope or chain is free of kinks or twists and not wrapped around  
the load.  
(b) The load is attached to the load block hook by means of a sling or other  
approved device.  
(c) The sling and load will clear all obstacles or obstructions.  
(d) The load is balanced and secured before lifting the load more than a few inches.  
(e) That multiple lines are not twisted around each other.  
(f) The hook is brought over the load in a manner to prevent swinging.  
(g) Load line slack is gradually removed and there is no sudden acceleration or  
deceleration of the moving load.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12034 Warning device; wind-indicating device.  
Rule 2034. (1) A crane or monorail equipment, except a pendant or rope-  
controlled crane or monorail equipment where the operator and other employees in the  
area of the load can see all load movements, shall be equipped with a warning device,  
such as a flashing light, horn, bell, or siren. An operator shall use a warning device  
before starting and intermittently while traveling in an occupied area.  
Page 9  
(2) A wind-indicating device shall be provided on an outdoor storage gantry-type  
crane which gives a visual or audible alarm to the operator at a predetermined wind  
velocity. When the warning is given, the crane shall be secured as prescribed in R  
408.12014.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12035  
extinguisher.  
Storing tools  
and  
other  
necessary  
articles;  
fire  
Rule 2035. (1) Tools and other necessary articles shall be stored in a secured  
container and not allowed to be loose in the cab or on the crane.  
(2) On cab-operated equipment, a class "C" or multi-purpose fire extinguisher  
shall be provided and maintained in a location accessible to the crane operator.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE  
R 408.12041 Shift inspections.  
Rule 2041. At the beginning of each shift during which a crane or monorail  
system is used, a daily visual inspection shall be made in accordance with table 2.  
The visual inspection shall be limited to that which can be made from a catwalk or  
other safe observation point.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12042 Monthly to yearly inspections; records; table 2.  
Rule 2042. (1) Monthly-to-quarterly and yearly inspections shall be made in  
accordance with table 2. Where supported by a documented record, monthly-to-  
quarterly inspections may be scheduled less frequently but not longer than semiannually.  
Before use, a crane or monorail system used in a corrosive atmosphere which has been  
idle for more than 1 month shall be inspected for all items specified in table 2. Where  
conditions of extreme duty cycle, heat, and corrosive or climatic extremes exist, more  
frequent inspections shall be conducted before use.  
(2) Records of all monthly-to-quarterly and yearly inspections shall be kept for not  
less than 2 years.  
(3) Table 2 reads as follows:  
Page 10  
TABLE 2 - MINIMUM INSPECTION SCHEDULE  
MONTHLY TO  
DAILY  
YEARLY OR  
MORE OFTEN  
ITEM  
QUARTERLY  
Check for wear,  
distortion and  
fractures  
Operating  
Mechanisms  
Visual for function  
Visual &  
Limit  
Check for  
Switches  
operational for function adjustment and wear  
Air Systems  
Visual for leaks  
Visual for leaks  
Hydraulic  
Systems  
Visual for leaks  
and abrasions  
Visual for leaks  
Visual For  
deformation and cracks  
Visual For wear,  
Hooks*  
Chains  
Measure for wear  
and elongation  
elongations and twist  
Wire  
Rope**  
Visual for wear,  
elongations and twist  
Visual For wear,  
broken wire, kinks  
Visual for proper  
seating in drum and  
sheave grooves  
Measure for wear  
Measure for wear  
Slings  
Visual for proper  
seating in drum and  
sheave grooves  
Rope  
Reeving  
Chain Drive  
Sprockets  
Check for wear  
Drive Chain  
Check for stretch  
Brake  
System ***  
Check for  
adjustment and wear  
Functional test  
Check For wear  
and cracks  
Check For wear  
and cracks  
Sheaves  
Drums  
Check for  
tightness  
Fasteners  
Check electrical  
components for  
function, loose  
connections &  
deterioration  
Electrical  
Apparatus  
Lock and  
Clamp Mooring  
Devices  
Check for wear,  
distortion and  
fractures  
Visual for  
function and wear  
Check hangers  
and fasteners  
Cab  
Page 11  
TABLE 2 - MINIMUM INSPECTION SCHEDULE  
MONTHLY TO  
DAILY  
YEARLY OR  
MORE OFTEN  
ITEM  
QUARTERLY  
Load, Wind  
and Other  
Indicators  
Accuracy  
Performance and  
safety requirements  
Power Plants  
End Stops  
Visual to ensure  
they are in place  
Check bolts for  
tightness and wear  
on Bridge  
*See rule 2045  
**See rule 2044  
***See rule 2031(1)(c)  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12043 Maintenance of equipment: correction of unsafe condition;  
precautions; returning equipment to normal operation; removing dirt and debris.  
Rule 2043. (1) An employer shall maintain a crane, monorail system, and their  
accessories in a condition that does not endanger an operator or other employee.  
(2) Before adjustments or repairs are commenced on a crane or monorail system, all  
of the following precautions shall be taken:  
(a) A crane shall be repaired in a location where it causes the least interference with  
other moving equipment on the track or rails and operations in the area.  
(b) Controllers shall be placed in the “off” position.  
(c) Where an employee is working at or near a disabled crane and there is a parallel  
runway on that side, or where a section of track or runway is being repaired or replaced,  
and a hazard exists to the employee, the requirements of subrule (3) of this rule apply.  
(d) The power to the crane or monorail system shall be locked out in accordance  
with R 408.10132 of General Industry Safety Standard Part 1 “General Rules,” as  
referenced in R 408.12002.  
(3) Where any other crane or monorail systems uses the same runway, a protective  
device shall be used to prevent interference with the idle crane or monorail systems  
undergoing repairs. Where the protective device is impractical, a signalman shall be  
placed at a visual vantage point to warn the operator of the active crane or monorail  
system when it reaches the limit of safe distance from the idle crane.  
(4) A crane or monorail equipment that has been adjusted or repaired shall not be  
returned to normal operation until all guards have been replaced, locks removed, safety  
devices reactivated, and the maintenance equipment removed.  
(5) An accumulation of dirt or debris on a crane or monorail equipment that may  
create a hazardous condition shall be removed.  
History: 1990 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
Page 12  
R 408.12044 Wire rope.  
Rule 2044. (1) A wire rope used on a crane or monorail equipment shall be  
replaced if any of the following conditions exist:  
(a) Within a segment of 8 diameters in length, the total number of broken wires  
exceeds 10% of the total number of wires.  
(b) The wire rope has been kinked, crushed, or bird-caged or has sustained any  
other damage which distorts the wire rope structure.  
(c) The wire rope shows heat or corrosive damage.  
(2) If wire rope is discarded from a crane or monorail equipment because of a  
condition specified in subrule (1) of this rule, the damaged portion shall not be used for a  
sling.  
(3) Wire rope for a crane or monorail equipment that has been clipped or spliced to  
form an eye shall be equipped with a thimble or equivalent.  
(4) An end fitting shall be a clamp, swage socket, or a zinc, or equivalent  
poured socket. Before cutting wire rope, seizings shall be placed as follows:  
(a) One seizing on each side of the cut on a preformed wire rope.  
(b) Two seizings on each side of 7/8-inch size or smaller nonpreformed wire rope.  
(c) Three seizings on each side of 1-inch or larger size nonpreformed wire rope.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
R 408.12045 Hooks.  
Rule 2045. (1) A crane or monorail equipment hook shall be discarded for any of the  
following reasons:  
(a) The throat opening is more than 15% larger than the manufactured size.  
(b) The hook has more than a 10-degree twist from a vertical centerline drawn  
through the hook socket.  
(c) The hook is cracked.  
(2) A discarded hook shall not be repaired or rebuilt and placed back in service.  
History: 1990 AACS.  
Page 13