DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 42. FORGING  
GENERAL PROVISIONS  
R 408.14201 Scope.  
Rule 4201. This part provides safety for life, limb, and health in or about places  
of employment and applies to all classes of power-forging machinery both for drop  
forging and flat-die forging, including steam hammers, pneumatic hammers,  
mechanically operated hammers, forging presses, forging rolls, trimming presses,  
bulldozers, upsetting machines, bolt-heading and rivet-making machines and power  
shears, and incidental operations and equipment in connection with such machinery.  
Excluded are cold forging operations.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14203 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 4203. (1) "Aisle" means a path of travel for vehicles and employees and  
which is not used for work and storage space.  
(2) "Board drop hammer" means a hammer equipped with boards attached to the  
ram which when propelled by motor driven friction rolls raises the ram and  
attachments.  
(3) "Cylinder head" means a cover attachment for the top of a steam cylinder.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14204 Definitions; F, G.  
Rule 4204. (1) "Forging press" means a mechanically or hydraulically operated  
press using closed or flat dies.  
(2) "Forging rolls (reducing rolls)" means rolls used as equipment for forging or  
swaging operations. Forging rolls are required essentially for reducing short, thick  
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stock sections into long, slender sections and to perform or reduce cross-sectional  
areas of billets before the finished forging operation.  
(3) "Guide bolt" means a bolt which passes through the hammer columns and  
secures the ram guides in the pocket.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14205 Definitions; H to P.  
Rule 4205. (1) "Hammer" means a machine designed to shape forgings by  
means of impact between dies. The force of the impact is by gravity or power  
supplied by steam, air or mechanical means.  
(2) "Mechanical hammer" means a gravity hammer which uses hydraulic or  
mechanical devices, such as friction rolls with boards, belts, or ropes to raise the ram  
and attachments.  
(3) "Point of operation" means the area of a machine, die, or tool where material is  
actually worked.  
(4) "Power shear" means a machine equipped with opposing shear blades and  
which cuts bar stock.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14207 Definitions; R, S.  
Rule 4207. (1) "Rod gland" means a sleeve at the bottom of a cylinder through  
which a piston rod passes.  
(2) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of material or  
object to the actual safe load or working stress when in use.  
(3) "Steam or pneumatic hammer" means a hammer using steam or air to  
provide energy in a cylinder to raise the hammer for a gravity drop and in case of a  
double action hammer to increase the force of the impact on the forging.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14208 Definitions; T to W.  
Rule 4208. (1) "Tie plate" means a plate located and attached to the upper  
structure of hammer columns and on which the steam cylinder is mounted.  
(2) "Trained and authorized" means to have received instructions regarding  
specified duties and to have permission to perform those duties.  
(3) "Trim press" means a class of auxiliary forging equipment which removes  
flash or excess metal from a forging.  
(4) "Upsetting machine" means a horizontal forging machine employing a set of  
gripper dies that holds stock while the ram or header slide forces the stock into shape  
and size.  
(5) "Walkaway" means a path of travel for foot traffic only.  
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History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14221 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS.  
R 408.14222 Aisles.  
Rule 4222. An aisle for vehicular traffic shall be not less than the width of the  
widest vehicle or load plus 3 feet. An aisle shall be outlined by marking.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14223 Platforms.  
Rule 4223. A platform used on the floor in front of a machine shall be designed  
to hold the weight imposed on it without creating a tripping hazard.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14224 Lighting and controls.  
Rule 4224. (1) Machinery and equipment shall be provided with a minimum of 15  
footcandles light intensity to fall upon the general area. When natural light is  
insufficient, artificial light shall be provided. Direct or reflected glare and shadows,  
including moving shadows, should be avoided.  
(2) A manually operated valve or switch for power forging equipment shall be  
identified as to function and accessible to the operator.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14225 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS.  
R 408.14226 Use of lead.  
Rule 4226. The following safety requirements apply to lead casts or other use  
of lead in a forge shop or die shop:  
(a) Thermostatic control of heating elements shall be provided to maintain  
melting temperature at not more than 750 degrees Fahrenheit.  
(b) A covered container shall be provided to store dross skimmings.  
(c) Equipment shall be kept clean, particularly from accumulations of lead oxide.  
(d) A sign shall be posted in the work area prohibiting eating in the area and  
calling attention to dangers of oral ingestion of lead dust from hands and clothing.  
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History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14227 Scale removers, oil swabs, and tongs.  
Rule 4227. (1) If an oil swab, scale brush, or other device is required to remove  
scale, it shall be long enough to enable the employee to perform the job without placing  
his hands within the point of operation.  
(2) Tongs shall be of sufficient length to clear the body of the worker in case of  
kickback, and shall not have sharp handle ends. The worker should be instructed in  
the proper body position when using tongs. Tongs should be checked periodically to  
see that they remain at the proper hardness level for the job. When rings or  
equivalent devices for locking tongs are used, they should be inspected periodically  
to ensure safe condition.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14231 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14232 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 4232. (1) Protective goggles or spectacles shall be provided to, and used  
by, all employees where a face and eye hazard exists.  
Protective goggles and  
spectacles shall comply with the requirements of general industry safety standard,  
Part 33. Personal Protective Equipment, being R 408.13301 et seq. of the Michigan  
Administrative Code.  
(2) Head protection shall be provided to, and used by, all employees where a  
head hazard exists. Head protection shall comply with the requirements of general  
industry safety standard, Part 33. Personal Protective Equipment, being R  
408.13301 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.  
(3) Foot or toe protection shall be provided to, and used by, all employees in  
accordance with general industry safety standard, Part 33.  
Personal Protective Equipment, being R 408.13301 et seq. of the Michigan  
Administrative Code, where a foot or toe hazard exists.  
(4) Other types of personal protective equipment, such as aprons, spats, sleeves,  
and specialty gloves other than lightweight cotton or similar types of gloves, shall be  
provided to, and used by, employees when such personal protective equipment is  
required for the protection of the employee from hazards.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14241 Guards, hammers, and forge presses.  
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Rule 4241. (1) The portion of a treadle at the rear of a hammer shall be guarded so  
that scrap or other material cannot collect below this portion of the treadle and prevent it  
from returning to normal position.  
(2) A treadle shall be blocked or otherwise secured during the time an employee  
is exposed under the ram or between the dies.  
(3) A scale guard constructed of not less than 20 gauge sheet steel or equivalent  
material shall be provided at the back of a hammer, so arranged as to stop flying objects  
and anchored or secured so that it cannot tip or fall.  
(4) A foot operated device, such as a treadle, pedal, bar, valve, or switch, shall  
be substantially and effectively protected from unintended operation.  
History: 1979 AC.  
HAMMER AND FORGE PRESSES  
R 408.14242 Hammer installation.  
Rule 4242. (1) A hammer shall be installed on or anchored to a foundation  
of such strength as to support the imposed weight and normal work stress.  
(2) A press shall be installed in a manner that it will remain in position or it  
shall be anchored to a foundation of such strength as to support the imposed weight  
and normal work stress.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14243 Ram props and blocks.  
Rule 4243. A ram prop or block shall be provided and used at each hammer when  
dies are changed or repaired. The prop or block shall have a handle on the side. One of  
the following shall be used:  
(a) A wooden ram prop or block of hardwood and complying with not less than  
the specifications of table 1. The ends shall be square.  
(b) A steel ram prop of not less than 2 1/2-inch outside diameter by 2-inch  
inside diameter, or a structural shape of equal strength, with squared ends.  
(c) Other material which shall be of equal or greater strength as required for  
steel in subdivision (b).  
Figure for 408.14243  
Page 5  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14244 Hammer die keys.  
Rule 4244. (1) A hammer die key and shims shall be made from a grade of  
material which does not crack or splinter when treated. A die key shall project not  
more than 3 inches in front or in back of the ram or die.  
(2) A head of a key shall be kept free of mushrooming and splitting by grinding  
off any flaring.  
(3) A head of a manual key driver shall be kept free of mushrooming by grinding  
or machining. A cutting torch shall never be used for this. A driver shall be  
suspended from a securely fastened beam with chain or cable of sufficient size to  
handle the weight of the driver plus a safety factor of 5. Chain, cable and fasteners  
shall be kept free of twisted, bent or elongated links. A driver shall be made of steel  
that will not chip on impact.  
(4) A pneumatic key driver is recommended. The driver shall be made of steel  
that will not chip on impact.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14245 Hammer cylinder heads and fasteners.  
Rule 4245. Parts, such as, but not limited to, a cylinder head and fasteners for a  
cylinder head, glands, tie plates and guide bolts, which are subject to failure shall be  
secured by use of a safety cable strung to them.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14246 Steam and pneumatic hammers.  
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Rule 4246. (1) A steam or air hammer shall be equipped with a functional safety cylinder  
head to act as a cushion if the piston rod breaks or pulls out of the ram.  
(2) A steam hammer shall be provided with a quick access emergency shut-off valve  
identified by name or color in the supply, sometimes called admission, pipeline at a  
location within reach of the operator. This valve shall be closed and locked in the “off”  
position while the hammer is being adjusted, repaired, or serviced, or when the die are  
being changed, except where necessary to move the ram.  
(3) If the steam hammer cylinder is constructed without a self-draining arrangement, a  
drain cock shall be provided which shall be piped to a sump or drain pipe.  
(4) A pneumatic hammer shall have a drain cock on the main head cylinder and on the  
clamp cylinder, if a clamp cylinder is provided.  
(5) Steam or air pressure at the hammer shall be no higher than that for which the  
hammer is designed. A pressure regulator and safety valve at the source of power or at  
the equipment, whichever is applicable, shall be used to insure this.  
(6) A steam pipe shall be covered where exposed to contact. Pipe supports or other  
effective means shall be provided to prevent failure from vibration, expansion, or  
contraction.  
(7) Steam or air piping shall be as prescribed in ANSI B31.1.0-1967, Power piping, with  
addenda issued before April 28, 1971, which is incorporated herein by reference and may  
be inspected at the Lansing office of the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs.  
This standard may be purchased from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood,  
Colorado, 80112, USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at website:  
(8) Where it is necessary to service a steam cylinder, a fixed platform, as prescribed in R  
408.14249(2), shall be provided, or the employee shall wear a safety belt and lanyard,  
with the lanyard secured to the hammer or a structural member.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14247 Mechanically operated hammers and forging presses.  
Rule 4247. (1) A mechanically operated hammer or forging press shall be  
provided with a means for disconnecting the power. Acceptable methods include the  
following:  
(a) A disconnect switch ahead of the starter on the primary line with provision  
for locking and within reach from the floor. Power shall be locked off when the  
machine is being repaired or serviced.  
(b) A tight and loose pulley on a countershaft, with a belt shifter, with a means  
to lock it in the "off" position. The belt shifter shall be within easy reach of the  
operator.  
(c) A clutch or drive pulley, with a clutch handle, with a means to lock it in the "off"  
position. The clutch handle shall be within easy reach of the operator.  
(2) Springs suspending the ram in a mechanically operated hammer shall be  
enclosed or restrained from flying in case of breakage.  
History: 1979 AC.  
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R 408.14248 Point of operation devices.  
Rule 4248. Effective August 31, 1974, the following shall pertain  
mechanically operated hammer used for cold re-strike operations:  
to  
a
(a) Where only 1 hand is used for holding the material, a safety stop, dog or catch  
shall be provided to prevent the ram from descending until this device has been  
released and is held out of the way by the other hand, or a hand lever instead of a  
foot treadle shall be provided for tripping the hammer.  
(b) On a hammer where neither hand is used for holding the material, there shall  
be provided a point of operation device that restrains the operator from inadvertently  
reaching into the point of operation or which automatically withdraws the operator's  
hands if they are within the point of operation as the dies close, or a tripping lever or  
safety stop or both that will require concurrent use of both hands to trip the hammer.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14249 Board drop hammers.  
Rule 4249. (1) On a board drop hammer a guard constructed of 20 gauge sheet steel  
or stronger must be provided around the board above the rolls to prevent the board from  
falling if the board breaks or comes loose from the ram.  
(2) Where work must be done at or near the rolls of a board hammer, a fixed or  
portable platform equipped with a guardrail system must be provided and used in  
compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to R 408.10241 of the Michigan Administrative Code.  
(3) Roll release levers and front friction rods on a board hammer must be prevented  
from falling by being secured to the hammer frame by cable, chain or an equally effective  
means.  
History: 1979 AC; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.14251 Forging presses.  
Rule 4251. (1) Forging press operating valves shall be located so that the  
operator will have a clear and unobstructed view of the press when standing in the  
usual operation position. If this arrangement  
is impossible, a mirror shall be  
installed in front of the operator to assist him in obtaining a full view of the press.  
(2) When dies are being changed or maintenance is being performed on a press,  
the following shall be accomplished:  
(a) The energy source to a mechanical press shall be locked out, and the flywheel  
shall be at rest before work begins.  
(b) The hydraulic pumps and power apparatus of the hydraulic press shall be locked  
out.  
(c) Blocking shall be provided and used to prevent the ram from dropping.  
The material shall equal or exceed specifications in table 1.  
Die design shall take into consideration the need for a flat spot for the block.  
(3) Location of steam, air, or water headers and scale or splash aprons shall give  
the operator sufficient clearance at the front of the forging press for any upward or  
Page 8  
downward movement of the tongs without creation of a pinch point between these  
facilities and the tongs.  
(4) A hot forging press shall be equipped with a scale guard, as prescribed in  
R 408.14241(3).  
(5) A forging press shall be provided with a positive means for retaining a  
piston and head assembly inside the counterbalance cylinder in case of failure or  
breakage of the piston and rod assembly.  
(6) An electrical motor shall be provided with a disconnect switch, as prescribed  
in R 408.14247(1). A hydraulic forging press shall be equipped with a positive type  
lockout disconnecting switch or valve.  
(7) Fire resistant fluids shall be used in a hydraulic press forming hot work.  
(8) Die bolts shall not be worn or damaged, and shall be long enough to permit  
being threaded into die bolt holes a distance not less than 1 1/2 times the diameter of  
the bolt. Washers shall not be used in multiple to compensate for excessive lengths of  
bolts.  
(9) A mechanical foot pedal or foot switch shall be covered on both sides and  
top with a substantial guard to prevent accidental tripping. The guard shall have rolled,  
broad, or covered edges to prevent injury or discomfort. The mechanical foot pedal  
shall be mounted to a press leg or anchored to the floor.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14252 Inspection.  
Rule 4252. (1) Daily visual observation, without dismantling, shall be made of a  
forging hammer and forge press to insure the safe condition of bolts, screws, keys,  
valves, and all parts of treadles and clutches and other operating mechanisms that  
might become loose by vibration.  
(2) A periodic and regular maintenance safety inspection shall be made of forging  
machinery and equipment, including guards and point of operation protection  
devices by a trained and authorized employee.  
(3) A record shall be made and maintained to show the date of inspection,  
equipment number and condition found.  
History: 1979 AC.  
OTHER MACHINES  
R 408.14261 Trim presses.  
Rule 4261. (1) A trim press shall be provided with a main disconnect switch as  
prescribed in R 408.14247(1).  
(2) A trim press shall be provided with a safety block or prop as prescribed in  
R 408.14243. Die design shall take into consideration and provide a suitable flat area  
in the die for locating and using blocking material.  
(3) A trim press shall be fed by devices as prescribed in R 408.14251(10).  
Page 9  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14263 Bulldozers.  
Rule 4263. A guard shall be attached to the side of the moving head of a bulldozer and  
shall extend past the stationary head to prevent persons from stepping between the dies,  
or another method may be used which offers equal protection.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14265 Bolt heading and rivet-making machines.  
Rule 4265. (1) A treadle (pedal) of a bolt heading or rivet-making machine  
shall be guarded as prescribed in R 408.14251(9).  
(2) A bolt header or rivet-making machine shall be equipped with a positive-  
type lockout device as prescribed in R 408.14247(1).  
(3) A screen shield shall be installed across point-of-operation on a bolt heading  
or rivet-making machine to protect against flying pieces.  
(4) Tension or relief springs on a bolt heading or rivet-making machine shall be  
guarded.  
(5) Safety blocks as prescribed in R 408.14243 shall be used when required  
while working on, removing, or setting dies.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14267 Power shears.  
Rule 4267. (1) The maximum size and specification of material being sheared on a power  
shear, as recommended by the manufacturer of the shear, shall not be exceeded.  
(2) Effective point-of-operation guarding shall be provided at both the feeding end and  
discharge end of a power shear.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14268 Material-handling equipment.  
Rule 4268. Material-handling equipment shall be of such capacity and size as to  
safely handle the imposed load of the dies and containers.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14269 Tumbling barrels and shot blasts.  
Rule 4269. (1) A tumbling barrel shall have all of the following:  
(a) Have fittings to the barrel dust-tight or the barrel enclosed in a booth with an  
exhaust system as approved by the state department of licensing and regulatory affairs.  
Page 10  
(b) Be locked in place while being loaded or unloaded.  
(c) Have an interlocked barrier across the front before it can be started.  
(2) A shot blast cleaning chamber shall have doors, curtains including silhouettes, or  
guards to protect the operator.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14271 Upsetting machines.  
Rule 4271. (1) An upsetter pedal (treadle) shall be guarded as prescribed in  
R 408.14251(9).  
(2) A shut-off valve or safety switch for service equipment on an upsetter,  
such as air lines, electric lines and water and oil lines, shall be located conveniently for  
the operator, and each shall be distinctly marked for ease of identification.  
(3) A positive type lockout device for disconnecting the power to the upsetter  
shall be provided as prescribed in R 408.14247(1).  
(4) An upsetting machine shall be installed so that it will remain on its  
foundation.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14273 Billet heating furnaces.  
Rule 4273. (1) A billet heating furnace shall be equipped with an automatic valve on the  
main fuel line which will shut off in case of electrical or fuel supply failure.  
(2) Radiant heat from a billet furnace shall be controlled by 1 or more of the following  
methods:  
(a) Reflective shields of aluminum or materials of equal reflectivity.  
(b) Controlled openings.  
(c) Evaporative cooling.  
(d) Water jackets.  
(e) Chain curtains.  
(3) An exhaust system shall be provided as prescribed by the state department of  
licensing and regulatory affairs.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
Editor's Note: An obvious error in R 408.14273 was corrected at the request of the promulgating  
agency, pursuant to Section 56 of 1969 PA 306, as amended by 2000 PA 262, MCL 24.256. The rule  
containing the error was published in Annual Administrative Code, 2013. The memorandum requesting the  
correction was published in Michigan Register, 2016 MR 10.  
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