DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 44. FOUNDRIES  
R 408.14401 Scope.  
Rule 4401. This part applies to manufacturing and maintenance operations relating  
to the safety of employees engaged in making of ferrous and nonferrous castings,  
including smelting operations when applicable, but excluding die casting operations.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14405 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 4405. (1) "Aisle" means a passageway between molds leading from a  
gangway, and its width shall be understood to be the cleaR distance between molds,  
machinery and equipment, posts, partitions, oR other obstructions on 1 side of a  
passageway and similar objects on the other side.  
(2) "Charging box or bucket" means a container which transports, to a cupola or  
furnace, scrap, coke, limestone, pig iron, ingots, alloys, briquets, and any other  
material to be melted.  
(3) "Chipping" means a process of removing excess metal, flash, fins, and other  
unwanted material from a casting.  
(4) "Coreblower" means a a pneumatic machine which makes cores.  
(5) "Crucible" means a vessel of refractory material used to hold or transport  
molten metal.  
(6) "Crucible furnace" means a device which encloses a crucible in which metal is  
melted by gas, oil, or electric heat.  
(7) "Cupola" means a vertical furnace used for melting metals and having tuyeres  
and a tapping spout.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14406 Definitions; D to I.  
Rule 4406. (1) "Draw furnace" means a device designed to heattreat or anneal  
metals.  
Page 1  
(2) "Ferrous foundry" means a place where malleable iron, grey iron, nodular  
iron, or steel or a combination of these metals are melted and poured into molds in the  
making of castings.  
(3) "Footcandles" means a standard measurement of light.  
(4) "Foot protection" means a protective cap worn on an employee's foot designed  
to protect against probable injury.  
(5) "Gangway" means a well defined passageway dividing oR bordering working  
areas, but does not include an aisle.  
(6)"Interlock" means a device or method of controlling the source of power so  
that if a guard, gate, or similar protective device is removed or out of place, the  
equipment becomes inoperative.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14407 Definitions; L to R.  
Rule 4407. (1) "Ladle" means a vessel used for transporting and pouring molten  
metals.  
(2) "Melting furnace" means a device used to melt metals or hold molten metals.  
(3) "Nonferrous foundry" means a place where brass, aluminum, lead, copper,  
tin, zinc, gold, silver, or combination of metals are melted or poured into molds in the  
making of castings.  
(4) "Oven" means a chamber designed to bake, heat, or dry.  
(5) "Overhead crane" means a machine foR lifting and lowering which moves on  
a bridge and travels under power on a fixed overhead runway.  
(6) "Reverbatory furnace" means a furnace in which heat is radiated from the roof  
onto the material to be melted.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14408 Definitions; S.  
Rule 4408. (1) "Safety factor" means the ratio of the breaking strength of a piece of  
material or object to the actual load or stress when in use.  
(2) "Sampling cone" means a cup with an attached handle used to collect a sample  
of sand.  
(3) "Service" means the repair or adjustment of equipment oR machinery.  
(4) "Shell or hot box core making" means a process of making cores of sand and  
resin mix that is cured in a heated box or pattern.  
(5) "Shell molding" means a process of making a mold of sand and resin mix and  
curing on a heated pattern.  
(6) "Single stroke mechanism" means a method oR device which prevents action or  
cycling of a part of a machine more than once when the control is continuously held  
down.  
(7) "Slag or dross" means the refuse from melting of metals.  
(8) "Smelting" means to separate metals by melting.  
Page 2  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14409 Definitions; T to W.  
Rule 4409. (1) "Two-hand control" means an actuating device that requires the  
concurrent use of both hands of an operatoR to trip or control the equipment.  
(2) "Trunnion" means the support attached to the sides of a ladle, flask or other  
device to facilitate the tilting or rotation of the device.  
(3) "Walkway" means a path of travel for personnel only.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14421 Personal protective equipment.  
Rule 4421. (1) An employer shall provide, and an employee shall use, eye protection  
as prescribed in general industry safety standard, Part 33.  
Personal Protective Equipment, being R 408.13301 et seq. of the Michigan  
Administrative Code.  
(2) Where there is a probability of foot injury, an employee shall use foot  
protection as prescribed in rules 3383 to 3386 of general industry safety standard, Part  
33. Personal Protective Equipment, being R 408.13383 to R 408.13386 of the Michigan  
Administrative Code.  
(3) An employee performing hydrostatic testing shall be protected in accordance  
with rule 3394 of general industry safety standard, Part 33.  
Personal Protective Equipment, being R 408.13394 of  
Administrative Code.  
the  
Michigan  
(4) The initial issue of personal protective equipment required in this rule shall be  
provided by the employer at no expense to the employee. Any replacement equipment  
necessary due to wear and tear or loss due to the environment of the work shall also be  
provided by the employer, unless covered by a collective bargaining agreement.  
(5) To protect an employee from burns while handling molten metal, an employee  
shall use leggings, spats, an apron, or other equivalent personal protective equipment.  
(6) To protect an employee assigned to handle hot cores, hot shell molds, or hot  
castings, an employee shall be provided with and use heat-resistant gloves.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14423 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14425 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
Page 3  
R 408.14426 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14427 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14431 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14433 Gangways and aisles.  
Rule 4433. (1) A gangway or aisle in which molten metal is being transported must  
be clear of obstructions and water.  
(2) A gangway must be not less than 4 feet wide or must be 3 feet wider than the  
widest load for which it is used.  
(3) A work station must be not less than 2 feet from aisles and gangways, except  
when protected by a guardrail system, in compliance with General Industry Safety and  
Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to  
R 408.10241 of the Michigan Administrative Code.  
(4) Access to and from a work station must be free of obstructions.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.14434 Aisles.  
Rule 4434. (1) An aisle shall be not less than 24 inches wide where molten metal  
is poured from hand or bull ladles or crucibles carried by 1 or 2 employees. However, if  
a mold is 20 inches oR more in height, an aisle shall be not less than 36 inches wide.  
(2) An aisle shall be not less than 36 inches wide where molten metal is poured by  
more than 2 employees.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14436 Metal platforms, ladders, and steps.  
Rule 4436. (1) A metal platform must be provided at a cupola and a furnace for  
preparation of tap holes, runner spouts, and slag-holes.  
(2) A metal platform and ladder or steps must be provided at a furnace or oven  
where employees go on refractory roofs.  
(3) A platform used at a crucible or similar type furnace must be of metal, not less  
than 3 feet wide, and protected in compliance with General Industry Safety and Health  
Page 4  
Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to R 408.10241 of the  
Michigan Administrative Code.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.14438 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14439 Wire rope and chain.  
Rule 4439. (1) A wire rope or chain on a crane, lift oR hoist used to lift or carry  
molten metal shall:  
(a) Be inspected weekly for wear or defects and shall be replaced if worn or  
defective.  
(b) Have a designed safety factor of not less than 8.  
(2) A wire rope shall have an independent wire rope core.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14441 Charge boxes.  
Rule 4441. A charge box shall be free of moisture, including ice or snow, when a  
furnace is charged.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14443 Cupolas.  
Rule 4443. (1) A skip hoist oR charging machine, unless completely enclosed,  
shall be equipped with:  
(a) A warning device to announce movement.  
(b) An interlocking gate across the bucket loading opening.  
(2) An employee working in a cupola shall be protected from falling objects by  
an overhead guard.  
(3) A cupola bottom shall be:  
(a) Supported by 2 or more metal props of structural strength with overall safety  
factor of not less than 10 to support a full capacity load and adjusted to proper height by  
wedges or screw jacks.  
(b) Dropped only after a general warning has been sounded and all persons are  
removed to a safe distance oR protected by a permanent or movable enclosure or  
screen.  
(c) Dropped into an area free of water.  
(4) A slag hole shall be shielded to protect an employee from spattering slag.  
(5) Where oxygen is used to blow or cut tapping holes, a screen or guard shall be  
used to protect nearby employees from hot blown material.  
Page 5  
(6) An employee not wearing light attenuating goggles oR shields shall be protected  
by a screen or wall from the arc of an electric furnace.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14445 Scrap.  
Rule 4445. (1) An alligator shear shall be guarded to prevent injury to an employee  
by flying particles.  
(2) Scrap shall not be broken by drops unless employees are protected from flying  
fragments by a permanent shield of hardwood planks not less than 2 inches thick, 1/4  
inch steel plate or material of equal strength.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14447 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14448 Conveyors.  
Rule 4448. A conveying device introducing stock to a draw furnace or oven in  
which a flammable or volatile hazard may exist shall be controlled to prevent its  
operation during pre-ignition oR purge. It shall be arranged to stop automatically in  
case of a ventilation failure.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14451 Melting furnace pits.  
Rule 4451. A melting furnace pit shall comply with all of the following provisions:  
(a) Be free of water during operation.  
(b) Be clear of employees during tapping or pouring.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14453 Crucibles.  
Rule 4453. A crucible shall:  
(a) Not be used if it shows cracks, thin spots, flaws, or dampness.  
(b) Be stored in a dry place and protected from moist air.  
(c) Be carefully charged to prevent damage.  
(d) A crucible made of clay shall not be allowed to cool afteR being placed in  
service.  
(e) Be covered while transporting molten metal emitting toxic fumes or be  
mechanically ventilated.  
Page 6  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14455 Ladles.  
Rule 4455. (1) A shield shall be provided between a hand ladle and an employee's  
hand on a single hand ladle.  
(2) A ladle not held in the hand shall be equipped with a manually operated or an  
automatic safety latch or brake.  
(3) A ladle of 2,000 pounds' capacity oR more shall be mechanically tilted and  
equipped with an automatic safety latch oR brake which shall hold the ladle at any  
attitude.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14457 Molten slag.  
Rule 4457. Slag which is not disposed of by conversion to granulaR form shall be  
collected in pots, ladles, tubs oR sand pigs and allowed to solidify throughout before  
dumping.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14461 Sand mullers.  
Rule 4461. (1) A sand muller, except for a continuous muller which does not  
require employee exposure, shall have interlocked enclosures over openings to prevent  
operation when loading or unloading.  
(2) For a muller having a sampling door, the employer shall provide, and an  
employee shall use, a sampling cone (scoop) to obtain a sample.  
(3) If a sample cone is used to obtain a sample, the sampling cone shall not contact  
the mixing mechanism and the employee using the sample cone shall not place his or  
her hand into the opening.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14463 Sand mixers.  
Rule 4463. (1) A bowl or drum-type sand mixer shall have a grating which is made  
of 3/8-inch rod or a material of equal strength with openings as prescribed in table 1 and  
which covers the opening and is interlocked to the mixer. When the cover is raised, the  
motor shall not start again until the cover is closed and the starter button activated.  
(2) Table 1 reads as follows:  
TABLE 1  
Distance of Opening From  
Maximum Width Opening  
Page 7  
Point of Operation Hazard  
(inches)  
(inches)  
1/2 to 1 1/2................  
More than 1 1/2 to 2 1/2..............  
More than 2 1/2 to 3 1/2..............  
More than 3 1/2 to 5 1/2..............  
More than 5 1/2 to 6 1/2..............  
More than 6 1/2 to 7 1/2..............  
More than 7 1/2 to 12 1/2.............  
1/4  
3/8  
1/2  
5/8  
3/4  
7/8  
1 1/4  
More than 12 1/2 to 15 1/2............ 1 1/2  
More than 15 1/2 to 17 1/2............ 1 7/8  
More than 17 1/2 to 31 1/2............ 2 1/8  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14465 Molding machine.  
Rule 4465. (1) A manually controlled molding machine must have a 2-hand control,  
single-stroke mechanism for the squeeze cycle for each operator assigned to the machine.  
A 2-hand control must be installed so as to prevent bridging the control buttons and so it  
can be operated by 2 hands only. A squeezer head that is so equipped that the operator  
must hold it in the operating position with one hand and actuate a 1-hand control with the  
other is acceptable.  
(2) The squeezer head of a molding machine must be positioned so as to avoid a  
pinch point with the sand chute.  
(3) Automatic and semiautomatic molding machines must be in compliance with  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 1. “General Provisions,” being  
R 408.10001 to R 408.10098 of the Michigan Administrative Code.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.14466 Shell mold assembly machines.  
Rule 4466. A squeeze machine used in shell mold assembly shall be equipped  
with a 2-hand control.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14468 Molding machine sand hoppers.  
Rule 4468. A sand hopper release door shall be out of reach to the operator or  
guarded to eliminate the pinch point.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 8  
R 408.14471 Core blowing.  
Rule 4471. A manually controlled shell, hot box core equipment, and a core  
blower machine shall be equipped with a 2-hand control as specified in R 408.14465.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14473 Chipper area shields and enclosures.  
Rule 4473. A chipper area shall have shields or enclosures to reduce the hazard of  
flying objects.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14474 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14475 Shake-out.  
Rule 4475. An employee on manual shake-out operations shall weaR hand, eye, and  
foot guards.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14476 Cleaning castings in enclosures.  
Rule 4476. (1) Sand or abrasive cleaning shall be done in an enclosed machine or room  
which shall be dust tight or have exhaust systems.  
(2) When a core is blown out of a casting, it shall be done in an enclosure equipped with  
an exhaust system.  
History: 1979 AC; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.14477 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14478 Lost wax or investment casting.  
Rule 4478. Manually operated lost wax injection equipment shall be equipped  
with a 2-hand control.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14479 Rescinded.  
Page 9  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14481 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14483 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14485 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14486 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1997 AACS.  
R 408.14488 Water testing.  
Rule 4488. Water testing equipment shall be designed and maintained to protect  
the operator and adjacent employees from injuries.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14491 Reverbatory furnaces.  
Rule 4491. A reverbatory furnace in a nonferrous foundry shall:  
(a) Be charged with dry material.  
(b) Have clear space on the load and unload sides to permit use of material  
handling equipment in a nonhazardous manner.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14492 Permanent mold equipment.  
Rule 4492. Manually operated permanent mold equipment in a nonferrous foundry  
shall be equipped with 2-hand controls.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS.  
R 408.14493 Crucible and similar type furnaces.  
Page 10  
Rule 4493. (1) Where a crucible or similar type furnace in a non-ferrous foundry is  
at floor level or below floor level, a grating must cover the opening, or it must be  
protected in compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2.  
“Walking-Working Surfaces,” being R 408.10201 to R 408.1024 of the Michigan  
Administrative Code.  
(2) Where crucible or similar type furnaces are above the floor level, they must be  
not less than 3 feet apart.  
History: 1979 AC; 1988 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.14494 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14495 Chlorine, caustic and acid.  
Rule 4495. (1) Liquid chlorine shall be stored in an unoccupied ventilated  
room. The exhaust pickup shall be at floor level.  
(2) A room used for storage of chlorine gas shall have not less than 2 exits.  
(3) A tank car containing chlorine and connected to a pipe or hose line shall be  
protected by a derail device and a blue flag.  
(4) A pipe or hose line carrying chlorine, caustic oR acid shall be identified by a  
sign or color label.  
(5) Where chlorine is piped through a wall, shut-off valves shall be located on  
both sides of the wall and at the inlet and outlet.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14496 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS.  
R 408.14497 Pumps.  
Rule 4497. A pump suspended by a hoist above a melting pot shall be secured to  
the hoist hook to prevent it being dropped.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.14498 Powered industrial trucks.  
Rule 4498. Where a powered industrial truck is used foR loading a furnace, an  
operator, exposed to splash or splatter, shall be protected by a shield.  
History: 1979 AC.  
Page 11