DEPARTMENT OF LICENSING AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS  
DIRECTOR’S OFFICE  
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of licensing and regulatory  
affairs by sections 16 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act, 1974 PA  
154, MCL 408.1016 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos. 1996-2,  
2003-1, 2008-4, and 2011-4, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025, and 445.2030)  
PART 81. BAKING OPERATIONS  
R 408.18101 Scope.  
Rule 8101. (1) This part provides for the safe maintenance and operation of bakery  
machinery and equipment by the employer and their safe use by the employee in, around,  
and about a place of employment.  
(2) The requirements of this part apply to the design, installation, operation, and  
maintenance of machinery and equipment used within a bakery.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18101a Adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 8101a. (1) This standard is adopted by reference in these rules, American  
Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME “Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,  
Section VIII – Unfired Pressure Vessels” 1974 edition, Division 1 and Division 2 with  
addenda. This standard is available from IHS Global, 15 Inverness Way East,  
Englewood, Colorado, USA, 80112, USA, telephone number: 1-800-854-7179 or via the  
internet at the following website: http://global.ihs.com; at a cost as of the time of  
adoption of these rules of $514.00.  
(2) The following standards are adopted by reference in these rules and are available  
from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy,  
Massachusetts, USA, 02169-7471, telephone number: 1-800-344-3555, or via the internet  
at the following website: custserv@nfpa.org, at a cost as of the time of adoption of these  
rules, as stated in this rule.  
(a) NFPA 62 “Code for Pulverizing Systems for Sugar and Cocoa,” 1967 edition.  
Cost: $27.00.  
(b) NFPA 656 “Code for the Prevention of Dust Ignitions in Spice Grinding Plants,”  
1959 edition. Cost: $27.00.  
(3) The standards adopted in these rules are available for inspection at the  
Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section,  
530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143.  
(4) Copies of the standards adopted in these rules may be obtained from the  
publisher or may be obtained from the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs,  
Page 1  
MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643,  
Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost charged in this rule, plus $20.00 for shipping  
and handling.  
(5) The following Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administrative  
(MIOSHA) standards are referenced in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards  
may be obtained at no charge from the Michigan Department of Licensing and  
Regulatory Affairs, MIOSHA Regulatory Services Section, 530 West Allegan Street,  
P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, or via the internet at:  
www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards. For quantities greater than 5, the cost, at the time of  
adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” R 408.10201 to R 408.10241.  
(b) General Industry Safety Standard Part 8. “Portable Fire Extinguishers,”  
R 408.10801 to R 408.10839.  
(c) General Industry Safety Standard Part 9. “Fixed Fire Equipment,” R 408.10901  
to R 408.10999.  
(d) General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 14. “Conveyors,” R 408.11401  
to R 408.11461.  
(e) General Industry Safety Standard Part 39. “Design Safety Standards for  
Electrical Systems,” R 408.13901 to R 408.13905.  
History: 2014 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.18102 Definitions; A .  
Rule 8102. (1) "Aisle" means a path of designated travel for employees and stock  
moving equipment .  
(2) "Automatic fry machine" means a machine with a power driven unit which  
deposits donuts, pies or other products into a hot edible oil and conveys them out of the  
oil after frying .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18103 Definitions; B .  
Rule 8103. (1) "Bag arm conveyor" means an elevating type conveyor with 1 or  
more chains to which are attached projecting arms for handling objects such as  
barrels or bags in a vertical or inclined path .  
(2) "Bagger" means a machine which receives a bakery product, inserts it into a  
preformed bag and closes the bag with a recloseable means .  
(3) "Bakery" means a place where various ingredients are mixed together and  
processed to produce frozen or finished bakery products .  
(4) "Band bar-type goods cutter" means a cutting device used to cut bakery  
products to predetermined sizes on an ovenband .  
(5) "Bar loader" means a device for pushing pans or products .  
(6) "Bun intermediate proofer" means a machine which gives proofing time to  
dough by conveyance .  
Page 2  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18104 Definitions; C .  
Rule 8104. (1) "Cake depositor" means a machine which measures batter for cakes  
and deposits it into pans .  
(2) "Carton closing machine" means a machine which automatically closes rigid  
hinged cover cartons after a product has been manually or automatically inserted .  
(3) "Carton wrapping machine" means a machine which receives and conveys single  
and grouped products in containers and overwraps them in flexible wrapping material .  
(4) "Continuous mixer" means a machine which continuously  
mixes  
ingredients to produce a dough product and dispenses the dough automatically .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18105 Definitions; D .  
Rule 8105. (1) "Divider" means a unit which divides a large dough mass into a  
predetermined size .  
(2) "Dough brake" means a machine which rolls dough into a flat shape .  
(3) "Dough sheeter" means a machine which takes a piece of dough and, by running  
it between a series of rolls, produces a sheet of dough .  
(4) "Dumpbin" means equipment into which dry ingredients in bags are first  
emptied for distribution .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18106 Definitions; F to N .  
Rule 8106. (1) "Form, fill, seal pouch or bag machine" means a machine which  
automatically weighs, counts or measures a product and inserts the product into a  
formed and partially sealed flexible material pouch .  
(2) "Grinder, pulverizer, food chopper and breaker" means machines used to reduce  
material into small fragments or powder by means of rolls, knives, blades or  
hammers.  
(3) "Horizontal mixer" means a machine which combines ingredients by agitating  
with beaters rotating in an arc on a horizontal shaft. A horizontal mixer may have a  
tilting or nontilting bowl .  
(4) "Molder" means a unit which forms and shapes a dough piece prior to insertion  
into a pan .  
(5) "Nip point" means that point where a rotating object creates a pinching  
action with another rotating object .  
History: 1979 AC .  
Page 3  
R 408.18107 Definitions; O to R .  
Rule 8107. (1) "Ovenband" means a continuous moving steel conveyor used in  
ovens in which the ovenband serves as the pan and hearth .  
(2) "Ovenhand bar loader" means a mechanical device consisting of a push bar  
attached to arms or a conveyor which moves bakery products from a table or platform  
onto a rack or moving conveyor .  
(3) "Pinch point" means a point at which it is possible to be caught between  
moving parts of a machine or between moving and stationary parts of a machine .  
(4) "Rounder" means a machine which rolls the dough, after being divided, to  
give the dough a desired shape .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18108 Definitions; S .  
Rule 8108. (1) "Scale cut-off switch" means a control device which shuts off the  
material feed when the scale has been charged with a predetermined amount of dry  
ingredient .  
(2) "Sifter" means fixed, motorized equipment, either oscillating, vibrating or  
brush type, which sifts dry ingredients .  
(3) "Slicing machine" means a machine equipped with moving cutters which slices  
bakery products .  
(4) "Spindle mixer" means a machine with 1 or more retractable heads which  
combines ingredients in a trough with beaters on a vertical shaft .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18109 Definitions; T to W .  
Rule 8109. (1) "Tray or carton forming machine" means a machine which  
automatically forms magazine-fed flat die-cut blanks of semi-rigid material into  
trays or hinged cover cartons .  
(2) "Trough" means a tub moved on castors, and used to hold or transport masses of  
ingredients or dough .  
(3) "Vertical mixer" means a machine which combines ingredients in a bowl by  
agitating with beaters revolving on a vertical shaft .  
(4) "Weight hopper and scale" means a device which weighs ingredients before  
dumping .  
(5) "Wrapping machine" means a machine equipped with mechanisms for  
conveying and wrapping bakery products in flexible wrapping material .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18111 Employer responsibilities.  
Rule 8111. An employer shall comply with both of the following:  
Page 4  
(a) Provide training to an employee as to the hazards and safe practices of the  
assigned job.  
(b) Maintain machinery, buildings, ramps, platforms, and aisles free of recognized  
hazards likely to cause an injury by operation or use.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.18112 Employee responsibility .  
Rule 8112. An employee shall:  
(a) Use personal protective equipment as required by this part .  
(b) Not use machinery or equipment unless authorized .  
(c) Not remove guards from machinery and equipment except when needed for  
servicing. The guards shall be replaced before returning to production .  
(d) Report defective machinery, equipment and hazardous conditions, when  
detected, to a supervisor .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18113 Illumination .  
Rule 8113. Illumination shall be provided at the work station to maintain a  
minimum of 20 footcandles intensity .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18114 Floors, aisles, and platforms.  
Rule 8114. (1) An aisle for combined usage of an employee and stock moving  
equipment must be 2 feet wider than the widest load moved. In a place of employment  
having less than 10 employees producing hand crafted products in the production area,  
the aisle must be not less than 30 inches wide. The aisle must be defined.  
(2) A platform, walkway, and stairway, where provided, on storage bins and  
machinery must be constructed as prescribed in General Industry Safety and Health  
Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.18101a.  
(3) A fixed ladder used in place of a stairway must be as prescribed in the General  
Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as referenced  
in R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.18115 Power controls and motors.  
Rule 8115. (1) Provision shall be made to prevent permanently connected machinery  
and equipment, other than compressors and air moving equipment used for air  
conditioning and refrigeration, and fire protection and pumps, from automatically  
Page 5  
restarting upon restoration of power after a power interruption if unexpected start up  
could cause injury.  
(2) A control device, except a stop button, shall be so arranged or guarded as to  
prevent accidental activation where activation could cause injury.  
(3) Where a hazard exists, a machine shall be equipped with an emergency stop  
device, red in color, that can be activated from an operator’s work station.  
(4) When a 2-hand control device is required, it shall require the concurrent use of  
both hands to activate the machine or equipment. The device shall be located in a manner  
to prevent bridging. Where more than 1 employee is exposed to the point of operation, a  
2-hand control device shall be provided each employee and the controls shall operate  
concurrently.  
(5) An electric motor, control, and other electrical components used on dry  
ingredient handling and storage equipment shall be dust ignition tight.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18116 Machine installation.  
Rule 8116. (1) Electrically powered machinery and equipment must be grounded.  
(2) Stationary type machinery and equipment must be secured to a floor, foundation,  
bench, table, or stand of such strength and design to prevent overturning or unintentional  
movement.  
(3) Permanent machinery and equipment must not be placed so as to require an  
operator to stand in an aisle. Temporary equipment must not be placed so as to require an  
operator to stand in an aisle, unless the employee is protected with a guardrail system in  
compliance with General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working  
Surfaces,” as referenced in R 408.18101a.  
(4) Machinery or equipment having an access door for body entry must be equipped  
with a means of opening the door inside and out.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
R 408.18117 Lubrication and maintenance .  
Rule 8117. An employee required to work in an explosive atmosphere shall use  
nonsparking maintenance and cleaning tools to prevent static and mechanical  
sparking .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18118 Hot surfaces .  
Rule 8118. Steam pipes, hot water pipes and surfaces of machinery and equipment  
which would cause burns, if exposed to contact, shall be guarded with a heat-resistive or  
insulating material or a barrier. If guarding is impractical, the exposed employee shall  
wear personal protective equipment .  
History: 1979 AC .  
Page 6  
R 408.18119 Housekeeping .  
Rule 8119. (1) Flour dust shall be removed not less than monthly from ledges,  
beams, sills, machinery and equipment in the make up and flour storage areas .  
(2) Flour and dough shall be removed from the floor or platform of a work station  
not less than daily .  
History: 1979 AC .  
SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT  
R 408.18121 Dry ingredients conveyors generally .  
Rule 8121. (1) A flour-handling system which has the final delivery end out of sight  
of the beginning point shall have a control at each point, either of which shall stop the  
flow of flour .  
(2) A bag chute with an incline of more than 30 degrees shall be equipped with  
a stop at the discharge end or the end shall have a means to slow the bags .  
(3) Wherever any of the various pieces of apparatus comprising a flour-  
handling system are run in electrical unity with one another, the control circuits for  
magnetic controllers shall be so arranged that the opening of any 1 of several limit  
switches, which may be on an individual unit, shall serve to de-energize all of the motors  
of that unit .  
(4) A screw conveyor shall be constructed of metal or other non-splintering  
material .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18122 Bag-arm conveyors.  
Rule 8122. A bag-arm conveyor used for transporting bags of flour or sugar with  
manual takeoff shall be equipped with a device installed so as to stop the conveyor  
automatically if any bag fails to clear the bar-arms at the discharge end. The conveyor  
shall be equipped with a rollback device as prescribed in General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 14 “Conveyors,” as referenced in R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18123 Storage bins and silos.  
Rule 8123. (1) A dry ingredient storage bin or silo shall be equipped with a dust-  
tight cover secured with gaskets and latches or other fasteners. A cover over a point  
of entry used by an employee shall be interlocked with the loading and unloading  
motors to prevent their operation when the cover is open. The cover shall be locked  
open when the bin or silo is occupied by an employee .  
Page 7  
(2) When an employee enters a bin or silo, he shall wear a safety belt with spark-  
resistant fittings attached to a lifeline attended by an employee outside the bin. The  
employee shall be supplied with fresh air during the time work is being performed  
within a bin or silo .  
(3) Illumination provided inside a bin or silo shall be from an explosion-proof  
light fixture or explosion-proof flashlight .  
(4) A storage bin having a side more than 5 feet in depth shall be provided with a  
standard stationary safety ladder both inside and outside the bin, which shall reach from  
floor level to the top of bin, and from the top of bin to the bottom on the inside, with the  
ladder end kept away from the moving screw conveyor, or shall be provided with some  
other means of providing equivalent safety for the employee .  
(5) A walkway surface shall be maintained in nonslip condition .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18124 Mechanical dumpbins and blenders .  
Rule 8124. (1) An opening in a mechanical dumpbin or blender shall be guarded  
by 1 of the following:  
(a) Parallel bars not more than 3 inches apart on centers .  
(b) Not less than 11-gauge wire mesh with openings not more than 3 inches in  
any direction. If an employee can reach the moving parts of the machine through the  
guard, then the 3-inch opening shall be reduced until the hazard is eliminated .  
(2) A mechanical dumpbin and blender shall be equipped with a suction type dust  
hood of such capacity as to prevent dust circulation outside the hood .  
(3) Where the loading point of a manually filled mechanical dumpbin is more than  
24 inches above the floor, a bag rest shall be provided .  
(4) A hinged dumpbin cover shall be provided with a means to lock the cover in  
the open position or shall be counterbalanced so that it cannot accidentally fall down  
while the dumpbin is in operation .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18125 Sifters.  
Rule 8125. (1) An employer shall ensure that a sifter has both of the following:  
(a) All openings constructed with dust tight closures that are readily accessible for  
inspection purposes.  
(b) Refuse tailing receptacles for all types of sifters readily accessible and located at  
a safe distance from unguarded moving parts.  
(2) Oscillating and vibrating sifters must have all moving parts within the outer  
frame of the sifter or the machine located within a guardrail system in compliance with  
General Industry Safety and Health Standard Part 2. “Walking-Working Surfaces,” as  
referenced in R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS; 2019 AACS.  
Page 8  
R 408.18126 Weighing hoppers and scales .  
Rule 8126. (1) A dial cover of a scale shall be made of shatter-proof material .  
(2) A trolley flour scale shall be equipped with a bar-type handle not less than 3/4  
inch in diameter for use in moving the scale .  
(3) Trolley wheels on a weigh hopper or scale located less than 8 1/2 feet from a  
floor or platform shall be guarded with an enclosure on all exposed sides .  
(4) A scale cut-off switch shall be totally enclosed and connected to the scale  
beam in a manner to protect the operator from contact .  
(5) A handle for an operating device for a trolley switch which hangs less than 6  
feet 8 inches from the floor shall be of pliable material .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18127 Mixers generally .  
Rule 8127. (1) Valves and controls used to regulate the coolant to the mixer shall  
be located so as not to create a hazard for an employee .  
(2) A pressure regulator shall be installed on all mixer coolant supply lines and shall  
be set at not more than the rated pressure of the jacket .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18128 Horizontal batch mixers .  
Rule 8128. (1) A horizontal batch mixer shall have control devices which require  
concurrent use of both hands whenever the mixer bowl is opened more than 6 inches  
and the agitator is energized. The controls shall be located so that the operator has a full  
view of the mixer bowl .  
(2) A horizontal batch mixer with a power dumping device shall have devices  
which require constant 2-hand control when the bowl closes the final 6 inches .  
(3) A horizontal batch mixer shall have a flour gate operating device, ingredient  
opening and ingredient water inlet which can be operated by the operator from the work  
area without endangering the operator .  
(4) An overhead cover or door on a horizontal batch mixer, which may  
accidentally close, shall be counterbalanced or provided a device which shall hold the  
door open until released by the operator .  
(5) A horizontal batch mixer shall not be hosed down during cleaning unless all  
electrical devices are designed for such cleaning .  
(6) An ingredient or inspection opening on a horizontal batch mixer shall be not  
more than 1 1/2 square feet in area. The opening shall have the access limited by a bar-  
type grating made of not less than 3/16-inch diameter stock, or its equivalent, on 3-inch  
centers. If it is possible to contact moving parts, a warning sign shall be installed at the  
opening to caution the employee .  
(7) A device or mechanism used to return sponges to a mixer shall be so interlocked  
with the mixer as to prevent injury to the operator .  
Page 9  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18129 Horizontal tub-type mixers and beaters .  
Rule 8129. (1) A horizontal tub-type mixer or beater shall be guarded and have the  
control devices prescribed in R 408.18128(1) or shall have an interlocked cover which  
will stop the agitator when the cover is opened .  
(2) A bottom outlet of a horizontal tub-type mixer or beater shall be so designed that  
an employee cannot reach the agitator or come in contact with the pinch point between  
the agitator and the tub .  
(3) When removing the dough from a horizontal tub-type mixer with the agitator  
in motion, the operator shall use a jog button, so located that the operator cannot reach  
the point of operation, or 2-hand constant pressure controls .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18130 Vertical batch mixers.  
Rule 8130. (1) A bowl locking device on a vertical batch mixer, including an  
artoflex mixer, shall be designed to require a positive action of the operator to unlock the  
bowl.  
(2) If an employee can reach into a vertical mixing bowl, a warning sign shall be  
installed to caution the employee.  
(3) A mixer with a built-in power unit shall have all drive elements enclosed in such  
a manner as to prevent injury to an operator or a maintenance employee performing his or  
her normal duties.  
(4) A mixer shall be equipped with an individual motor and control, and with a  
conveniently located manual switch, to prevent the mixer from being started in the usual  
manner while the machine is being serviced and cleaned.  
(5) A loose access door and cover weighing more than 2 pounds shall not be used on  
a mixer. The door or cover shall be hinged or otherwise held in proximity to the openings  
that they cover.  
(6) An overhead cover or door that is subject to accidental closure shall be  
counterbalanced to remain in an open position, or shall be provided with a means to hold  
it open until positively released by the operator.  
(7) An electrical pilot or control circuit shall not be employed at a potential in excess  
of 240 volts.  
(8) A device shall be made available for moving a bowl, weighing more than 80  
pounds with contents, into and out of the mixing position of the machine.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18131 Spindle mixer .  
Rule 8131. A vertical spindle mixer shall be equipped with a cover which raises and  
lowers with the spindle head. The cover or head shall be interlocked so that the  
spindles cannot start when the cover is raised. A jog switch, so located that the operator  
Page 10  
cannot reach the pinch point, shall be provided for cleaning the blades in a raised  
position, or 2-hand constant pressure controls shall be provided .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18132 Continuous mixers .  
Rule 8132. (1) A cover on a continuous mixer shall be interlocked to the power  
source so that the agitator will not turn when the cover is open .  
(2) A continuous mixer which starts automatically shall have a warning device  
which shall be activated not less than 3 seconds before start-up .  
(3) A continuous mixer with a permanent inlet that introduces solids or semisolids  
shall be of a configuration which would not permit hands to come in contact with  
moving parts .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18133 Dough trough elevator and dump .  
Rule 8133. An elevator-type dough trough dump shall be provided with an  
interlocked gate so that the trough cannot be elevated or lowered until the gate is in  
position to protect an employee, or the trough shall be controlled constantly by an  
operator with a full view of the elevator area while dumping and lowering the trough the  
last 7 feet of travel to the floor .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18134 Dividers and depositors .  
Rule 8134. (1) A guard at the front of a divider or depositor shall be constructed so  
that the dough weight can be adjusted without removal of the guard .  
(2) A guard at the back of a divider or depositor shall enclose all moving parts.  
The guard shall be hinged and interlocked with the power source so that the machine  
will not operate when the enclosure is open .  
(3) The oil hole for the knife at the back of a divider shall be of such size that a  
finger cannot enter the hold .  
(4) Any elongated hole in the knife actuating arm on a divider shall be covered with  
a saddle guard or other protective device .  
(5) Start and stop control buttons on a divider or depositor shall be oil-tight and  
other electrical components shall be either oil-tight or located to prevent the entrance  
of oil .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18135 Molders .  
Rule 8135. (1) An emergency stop device, as prescribed in R 408.18115(4) shall be  
provided for the employee feeding and tailing a molder .  
Page 11  
(2) A molder shall be so designed or guarded to prevent a shearing action at any  
clean-out hole .  
(3) A hand-fed molder shall have a belt feed device, or the hopper shall be extended  
high enough or have a barrier to prevent an employee's hand from contact with the in-  
running rolls. The top edge of such a hopper shall be well rounded to prevent injury  
when it is struck or bumped by the employee's hand .  
(4) A mechanical feed molder shall be provided with a hopper so designed and  
connected to the proofer that an employee's hands cannot come in contact with the in-  
running rolls .  
(5) Where a removable crank is provided to adjust the molder, brackets shall be  
provided to hold the crank when it is not in use. The brackets shall be interlocked with  
the power source so that the molder cannot run until the crank is repositioned on the  
brackets .  
(6) Each molder shall have individual drives and controls .  
(7) Electric control buttons and components shall be dust tight .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18136 Manually fed dough brakes .  
Rule 8136. (1) The in-running roll of a manually fed dough brake shall be enclosed  
by a guard of not less than 11 gauge metal or material of equivalent strength extending  
to within 6 inches of the hopper bottom board and at a horizontal distance from the  
nip point of the rolls sufficient to prevent an employee's hand from being caught. The  
enclosure may be expanded metal for visual observation .  
(2) An emergency stop bar shall be provided on a manually fed dough brake so  
located, that if the operator slips and falls toward the rolls, or if the operator's hand is  
caught in the rolls, the body pressure opens a circuit which deenergizes the drive motor  
and a magnetic spring-set brake stops the rolls immediately. This device shall be  
maintained operable .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18138 Roll-type dough sheeters .  
Rule 8138. (1) A roll-type dough sheeter shall be equipped with a barrier guard  
so located as to prevent fingers from getting into the nip point or an emergency stop bar  
shall be provided across the length of the rolls so designed that it will stop the rolls  
on contact with the operator's hand or arm. A material, such as perforated or expanded  
metal, which allows visual monitoring is preferable for a barrier guard .  
(2) A guard, which completely covers the gears, shall be provided and designed to  
allow adjustment of the gears .  
(3) The hopper for a hand-fed sheeter shall be equipped with an emergency  
stop bar or stopping device readily accessible to the operator or the hopper design shall  
be such that the operator cannot reach the rolls .  
History: 1979 AC .  
Page 12  
R 408.18139 Bun intermediate proofers .  
Rule 8139. (1) A star wheel feeder on a bun intermediate proofer shall be enclosed  
by a hinged guard on all sides except for an opening to receive the dough. The  
hinged portion shall be designed to open up when struck by a hand .  
(2) The moving parts of a bun intermediate proofer exposed to contact shall be  
enclosed .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18141 Oven loaders and unloaders .  
Rule 8141. (1) A hand-fed overhand bar oven loader shall be equipped with 2-  
hand controls wired to operate concurrently with the buttons guarded by covers, rings  
or by location to prevent bridging, or the oven loader shall be hung in a manner that  
allows the overhand bar itself to be raised to stop the loader drive. The overhand bar  
shall be made of aluminum or other equivalent light weight material. Pressure shall  
be maintained on the controls until the pinch point has passed .  
(2) Exposed levers, controls, adjustment knobs and handles shall be recessed,  
flush or guarded to avoid catching of clothing .  
(3) A portable oven loader and unloader shall have a locking or clamping device to  
prevent movement during operation .  
(4) The oven loader and unloader drive shall have overload, instant trip delay, clutch  
or equivalent means to stop equipment in case of a jam .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18142 Pan washers and rack washers .  
Rule 8142. (1) The safety controls on a pan washer or rack washer shall be  
inspected and maintained not less than as prescribed in table 1 .  
(2) A pan washer or rack washer shall have an emergency door latch on the door  
so an operator may open the door from the inside .  
(3) Where the controls of a pan or rack washer are subject to water spray or  
splash, they shall be the waterproof type .  
(4) A pan washer shall be guarded to protect the operator from overspray and the  
overflow and drain stand pipes shall be arranged to prevent backflow of liquids from  
hitting the operator .  
(5) Table 1 reads as follows:  
TABLE 1  
SAFETY CONTROL INSPECTION  
GUIDE FOR WASHERS AND OVENS  
Item  
Monthly  
Page 13  
Fuel safety shutoff valve  
Combustion safeguard  
Time delay switches  
Fan failure interlocks  
Conveyor failure interlocks  
Temperature limit switches  
Pressure supervising switches  
Door and damper limit switches  
Automatic fire checks  
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Explosion venting latches on doors  
Operation sequencing tests of auxiliaries  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18143 Pan-cooling towers .  
Rule 8143. (1) A pan-cooling tower extending more than 1 floor in height shall have  
a stop switch at each floor. The conveying means shall be restarted only at the  
location where stopped or at the main source after the stopped switch has been reset .  
(2) Sides of a pan-cooling tower not used for loading and unloading shall be  
enclosed or barrier guarded to a height of 8 feet .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18144 Coolers .  
Rule. 8144. (1) The drive on a mechanical feed rack or tray-type cooler shall be  
equipped with an overload device designed to cut the power in case of a jam. The  
device shall not restart the drive automatically when the jam is cleared .  
(2) A mechanical feed rack and tray cooler shall actuate a warning device when  
it enters a dwell condition caused by the backup of production at a unit downstream .  
(3) A cooler having an access door for body entry shall be equipped with a means  
for opening the door from the inside and the outside .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18145 Material handling .  
Rule 8145. (1) A rack used to transport bake goods within a bakery production  
area shall be equipped with:  
(a) Handles so located that no part of an employee's hand extends beyond the outer  
edge of the frame when holding the handles .  
(b) Castors with an anti-friction bearing swivel arrangement for better control .  
(2) A trough shall be mounted on anti-friction bearing castors to make it possible  
for the operator to move and direct the motion of the trough with a minimum of effort .  
Page 14  
(3) A lock or other device shall be provided to hold the handle in a vertical  
position when a hand-operated lift truck is not in use .  
(4) Castors on hand trucks shall be set back from corners to be out of the way of  
toes and heels, but not far enough back to cause the truck to be unstable. A lock or other  
device shall be provided to hold the handle in vertical position when the truck is not in  
use .  
(5) A chain tackle shall be prominently, permanently, and legibly marked with  
maximum load capacity. Safety latches shall be installed on all hooks .  
(6) Trough hoists shall be prominently, permanently, and legibly marked with  
maximum load capacity. Safety devices shall be provided to hold the load in any  
position. Safety latches shall be installed on all hooks .  
(7) Sharp corners and edges on bread and cake boxes and trays shall be eliminated  
on metal parts. All wooden corners and edges shall be protected to prevent splinters .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18146 Air conditioner .  
Rule 8146. An air conditioner having access doors for body entry shall be equipped  
with a means of opening the door from the inside and the outside .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18147 Steam kettles.  
Rule 8147. (1) A steam kettle shall have a positive locking device capable of  
holding the kettle at any desired position.  
(2) A kettle with a steam jacket shall be provided with safety valves as prescribed in  
the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1974 edition,  
as adopted in R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18148 Chocolate melting, refining, and mixing kettles .  
Rule 8148. A chocolate melting, refining and mixing kettle shall be equipped  
with an electrically interlocked cover to stop agitation when the cover is opened .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18149 Doughnut machines.  
Rule 8149. Separate flues shall be provided for doughnut machines as follows:  
(a) For venting vapors from the frying section.  
(b) For venting products of combustion from the combustion chamber used to heat  
the fat.  
Page 15  
History: 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18151 Slicing machines .  
Rule 8151. (1) A slicing machine shall be equipped with a device which shall be  
used to push the last loaf through the knives without contacting the moving knives .  
(2) A slicing machine with reciprocating knives shall have the knife frames  
guarded by an interlocked cover .  
(3) A slicing machine with endless band knives shall have:  
(a) The drive motor equipped with an automatic brake which shall be applied  
when the motor is not energized .  
(b) An interlocked cover or door over each point of access which deenergizes  
the drive motor when the cover or door is opened .  
(c) A safety device which deenergizes the drive motor when a knife breaks .  
(d) A honing or sharpening device for the knife which shall be so designed as to  
protect the employee from the knife while doing the work .  
(e) Any transparent inspection ports made of shatter-proof material .  
(4) An automatically fed slicing machine used in conjunction with a wrapping or  
bag loading machine shall have starting controls for both machines at 1 location and a  
stop device at each point of operation .  
(5) Where pusher fingers attached to the feed chain enter the bed plate of the  
crossfeed, the end guard shall be extended to cover the pinch point .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18152 Wafer cutting machine .  
Rule 8152. A wafer cutting machine shall be guarded to prevent the operator's  
hand from making contact with the saw or knife .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18153 Cutting, panning, embossing, peeling, and bar machines .  
Rule 8153. (1) The manually fed rolls of a cutting, panning, embossing, peeling,  
and bar machine shall be guarded in front of the rolls by 1 of the following:  
(a) A mechanical guard across the rolls to prevent entry of fingers into nip points .  
(b) An emergency stop bar designed as prescribed in R 408.18136(2) to stop the  
rolls when contact is made with the bar .  
(2) The blade of a cutting machine shall be guarded to prevent contact of the  
operator's fingers .  
(3) The band bar-type goods cutter shall be guarded on each side of the drive  
mechanism of the ovenband and in the vertical run of the cutter .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
Page 16  
R 408.18154 Rotary, pretzel rolling, and pretzel extruding machines .  
Rule 8154. (1) The forcing rolls within a dough hopper on a rotary, pretzel  
rolling and pretzel extruding machine shall be guarded as prescribed for feed  
hoppers in R 408.18160 .  
(2) A rotary, pretzel rolling and pretzel extruding machine shall have an emergency  
stop bar at the operator's station so located that it can be operated by the operator's body .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18155 Frying machines and vats; construction .  
Rule 8155. (1) A frying machine or vat shall be insulated or guarded where burns  
can result from accidental contact with the outside covering .  
(2) A frying machine or vat shall be equipped with an automatic temperature  
control. In addition, the machine or vat shall have an over temperature control device  
unadjustable and preset below the flash point of the frying fat which will turn off the  
heating device .  
(3) An automatic frying machine or vat with an internal heating device shall be  
equipped with a low level frying fat cut off device designed to turn off the heat device  
when the fat level is less than 1 inch above the heating tubes or elements .  
(4) Where forced draft or an automatic damper is used for exhausting combustion  
fumes, it shall be interlocked with the fuel supply valve of the frying machine or vat .  
(5) If the frying machine or vat is designed with a closed combustion chamber, a  
time delay relay shall be installed, in connection with the exhauster, to purge the  
chamber before ignition can be made .  
(6) The heat transfer piping shall be installed to allow for natural expansion of the  
pipe .  
(7) Where a separate heat exchanger is used in conjunction with a frying machine or  
vat, subrules (1), (2), and (8) shall be followed for the heat exchanger .  
(8) A frying machine or vat shall be equipped with a device which will shut off the  
fuel supply if the pilot or burner flames out .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18156 Frying machines and vats; , installation.  
Rule 8156. (1) A frying machine or vat shall be installed on a noncombustible floor,  
or a metal pan flanged on 4 sides shall be installed underneath the entire machine. The  
capacity of the pan shall be not less than the frying tank.  
(2) A frying machine or vat shall have not less than 30 inches of work space on all  
exposed sides, except where other equipment is connected to the machine.  
(3) A frying machine or vat shall be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing system  
as prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 9 “Fixed Fire Equipment,” or  
portable fire extinguishers as prescribed in General Industry Safety Standard Part 8  
“Portable Fire Extinguishers,” as referenced in R 408.18101a.  
Page 17  
(4) Where a non-pressure type of indirect heat is used with a frying machine or vat,  
the welded seams of the plate coils on the frying kettle shall not make contact with the  
welded seams of the kettle proper.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18157 Frying machines and vats; maintenance .  
Rule 8157. Not less than every 90 days the following shall be accomplished:  
(a) The frying machine or vat shall be washed and boiled out to remove all  
accumulations of gum .  
(b) The controls shall be checked for operability .  
(c) The gas and oil burners shall be cleaned and adjusted .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18158 Icing and topping machines .  
Rule 8158. (1) An agitator for an icing and topping machine which is too heavy to  
lift out shall be hinged to swing up, out of the way, or lifted by mechanical means so the  
hopper may be removed .  
(2) A hot water or steam-jacketed hopper for an icing and topping machine shall  
have a pressure relief valve set at not more than the maximum allowable working  
pressure of the vessel. The hopper shall be insulated or guarded to prevent burns from  
accidental contact. The valve shall be vented to an area where the employee is not  
exposed to the hazard .  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS .  
R 408.18159 Pulverizers .  
Rule 8159. (1) A belt drive used in connection with a pulverizer shall be grounded  
to remove static electricity .  
(2) Pulverizing equipment shall be dust tight. Electrical equipment and motors  
located in the room or area shall be dust ignition proof, class II, division I type .  
(3) A magnetic separator shall be installed at the material inlet to a pulverizer .  
(4) When there are multiple pulverizers and the final pulverized material is  
pneumatically conveyed, each conveyor system shall be independent of the other  
and electrically grounded to reduce the likelihood of fire or explosion .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18159a Sugar and spice pulverizers.  
Rule 8159a. (1) All drive belts used in connection with sugar and spice pulverizers  
shall be grounded by means of metal combs or other effective means of removing static  
electricity.  
Page 18  
(2) All pulverizing of sugar or spice grinding shall comply with the requirements of  
NFPA 62 “Code for Pulverizing Systems for Sugar and Cocoa,” 1967 edition and NFPA  
656 “Code for the Prevention of Dust Ignitions in Spice Grinding Plants,” 1959 edition,  
as adopted in R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.18160 Feed hoppers .  
Rule 8160. (1) A feed hopper for a grinder, pulverizer or food chopper shall have a  
guard over the hopper opening. The guard shall be 1 of the following:  
(a) A grid with opening small enough to keep the fingers from touching the feeding  
knives or worm .  
(b) A solid cover interlocked to the operating controls so that the machine will  
not operate when the cover is open .  
(c) A hopper of such length or opening that the fingers cannot touch the knives .  
(2) A feed hopper which is removable from a grinder, pulverizer or food chopper  
shall be interlocked to prevent operation of the machine when the hopper is removed .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18161 Chocolate and fig breaking machines .  
Rule 8161. A chocolate and fig breaking machine shall be guarded as prescribed  
in R 408.18160 .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18171 Wrapping machines.  
Rule 8171. (1) An electric sealing heater on a wrapping machine shall have the  
exposed heated surfaces guarded to prevent burns from accidental contact.  
(2) Where more than 1 operator is feeding a wrapping machine, each operator shall  
have an emergency stop button as prescribed in R 408.18115(4), but there shall be only 1  
start button station.  
(3) A pouch-wrapping machine shall be equipped with a trip gate or interlocked  
enclosure ahead of or over the sealing jaws and wrapper guide.  
(4) Electric wiring for the wrapper heaters shall be arranged so that a minimum  
number of wires are used to connect the movable heaters assembly to the permanent  
wiring of the machine.  
This wiring shall be the heat resisting type as prescribed in General Industry Safety  
Standard Part 39 “Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems,” as referenced in  
R 408.18101a.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
Page 19  
R 408.18172 Carton wrapping machines .  
Rule 8172. (1) An electric sealing heater on a carton wrapping machine shall be as  
prescribed in R 408.18171(1) .  
(2) A hot metal glue pot for a carton wrapping machine shall have the heated  
surfaces insulated or guarded to prevent burns from accidental contact .  
(3) The in-running nip points of power driven rolls shall be guarded .  
(4) Pusher bars and pusher fingers of a carton wrapping machine which create a  
hazard for an employee shall be guarded by a barrier or enclosure .  
(5) An end-seal drum on a carton wrapping machine shall be guarded at the pinch  
point and point of operation .  
(6) An access cover or door on a carton wrapping machine shall be interlocked  
as prescribed in R 408.18151(3) .  
(7) Where more than 1 operator is feeding a carton wrapping machine, each  
operator shall be provided controls prescribed in R 408.18115(5) .  
(8) Where a safety switch is used to detect jams of product flow on a carton  
wrapping machine, the machine shall have a manual reset to prevent automatic restarting  
when the jam has been cleared .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18173 Bag loading machines .  
Rule 8173. (1) A bag magazine feed and the funnel section of a bag loading  
machine shall be guarded by a movable panel or guard equipped with an interlock which  
stops the motion of all parts when the panel or guard is in an open position .  
(2) A bag loading machine having a tying mechanism for the twist lock shall be  
guarded in a manner to prevent an employee from reaching the twisting hook .  
(3) If more than 1 operator feeds a bag loading machine, an emergency stop within  
reach of each operator shall be provided as prescribed in R 408.18115(4) .  
(4) A bread bagger shall have an interlocked enclosure over the top and both sides  
of the reciprocating pickup arm .  
History: 1979 AC .  
R 408.18174 Form-fill-seal pouch or bag machine .  
Rule 8174. (1) A form-fill-seal pouch or bag machine shall have:  
(a) The exposed hot long seam sealer parts insulated or guarded as prescribed in  
R 408.18171(1) .  
(b) The in-running nip point of the power driven friction film feed rollers  
guarded.  
(c) An emergency stop button within reach of each employee feeding the machine,  
as prescribed in R 408.18115(4) .  
(2) Draw bar parts of a form-fill-seal pouch or bag machine shall be guarded by  
extending the frame structure, or a hinged or movable guard which shall be interlocked  
to the drive motor .  
Page 20