DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY  
DIRECTOR'S OFFICE  
CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD  
(By authority conferred on the director of the department of labor and economic  
opportunity by sections 19 and 21 of the Michigan occupational safety and health act,  
1974 PA 154, MCL 408.1019 and 408.1021, and Executive Reorganization Order Nos.  
1996-2, 2003-1, 2008-4, 2011-4, and 2019-3, MCL 445.2001, 445.2011, 445.2025,  
445.2030, and 125.1998)  
PART 22. SIGNALS, SIGNS, TAGS, AND BARRICADES  
R 408.42201 Scope and adopted and referenced standards.  
Rule 2201. (1) This part pertains to the design, placement, relocation, covering,  
removal, use, and maintenance of signals, traffic control devices, accident prevention  
signs, tags, and barricades for construction operations.  
(2) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) International Safety Equipment  
Association (ISEA) standard 107 “High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear,” 2004  
edition, is adopted by reference in these rules. This standard is available from IHS  
Global, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, Colorado, 80112, USA, telephone number:  
1-800-854-7179 or via the internet at website: http://global.ihs.com; at a cost as of the  
time of adoption of these rules of $64.00.  
(3) The “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Part 6: Temporary Traffic  
Control,” 2011 Michigan/2009 Federal Edition is adopted by reference in these rules and  
is available at no cost from the Michigan Department of Transportation via the Internet at  
website: www.michigan.gov/mdot. The entire 2011 Michigan Manual on Uniform  
Traffic Control Devices (MMUTCD) may be purchased from the Michigan Department  
of Transportation, Cashiers Office, P.O. Box 30648, Lansing, Michigan 48909-8148;  
(517) 636-0650; at a cost of $143.99 as of the time of adoption of these rules.  
(4) The standards adopted in subrules (1) and (2) of this rule are also available for  
inspection at the Department of Labor and Economic Opportunity, MIOSHA, Standards  
and FOIA Section, 530 West Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-  
8143.  
(5) Copies of the standards adopted in subrules (1) and (2) of this rule may be  
obtained from the publisher or may also be obtained from the Department of Labor and  
Economic Opportunity, MIOSHA, Standards and FOIA Section, 530 West Allegan  
Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143, at the cost stated in subrules (1)  
and (2) of this rule, plus $20 for shipping and handling.  
(6) The following Michigan occupational safety and health standards are referenced  
in these rules. Up to 5 copies of these standards may be obtained at no charge from the  
Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Opportunity, MIOSHA, Standards and  
FOIA Section, 530 W. Allegan Street, P.O. Box 30643, Lansing, Michigan, 48909-8143  
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greater than 5, the cost, as of the time of adoption of these rules, is 4 cents per page.  
(a) Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 1. “General Rules,” R 408.40101  
to R 408.40134.  
(b) Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 6. “Personal Protective  
Equipment,” R 408.40601 to R 408.40660.  
(c) Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 10. “Cranes and Derricks,” R  
408.41001 to R 408.41099a.  
(d) Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 13. “Mobile Equipment,” R  
408.41301.  
(e) Construction Safety Standards Part 27. “Blasting and Use of Explosives,” R  
408.42701 to R 408.42799.  
(f) Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 30. “Telecommunications for  
Construction,” R 408.43001 to R 408.43006.  
(g) Construction Safety Standards Part 45. “Fall Protection,” R 408.44501 to  
R 408.44502.  
History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS; 2021 MR 6, Eff. Mar 30, 2021.  
R 408.42209 Rescinded.  
History: 2006 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2021 MR 6, Eff. Mar 30, 2021.  
R 408.42211 Definitions; A to C.  
Rule 2211. (1) "Accident prevention sign" means a sign used to warn of a hazard  
or to provide safety instructions or directions.  
(2) "Accident prevention tag" means a tag which is used to warn of an existing  
or immediate hazard and which is temporarily attached to a part of equipment or a  
structure.  
(3) "Barricade" means a readily visible obstruction used to direct the passage  
of employees or vehicles.  
(4) "Barrier" means a device that is designed to prevent penetration from a way of  
travel to areas behind the barrier to minimize injury to employees who perform  
construction operations.  
(5) "Caution sign or tag" means a sign or tag used to warn of a potential  
hazard or to warn against an unsafe practice.  
History: 1979 AC; 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS.  
R 408.42212 Definitions; D.  
Rule 2212. (1) "Danger sign or tag" means a sign or tag used to signal an  
immediate hazard.  
(2) "Directional sign" means a sign having an arrow to point out a direction.  
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(3) "Do not operate tag" means a tag to warn of a potential hazard if the  
equipment is operated.  
(4) "Do not start tag" means a tag used to tag out a starting mechanism which  
would cause a hazard if started.  
History: 1979 AC.  
R 408.42213 Definitions; E to T.  
Rule 2213. (1) “Exit sign” means a sign used to designate a point of discharge from a  
room or building.  
(2) “Handhold” means an affixed device or designated place where a person riding  
on a moving vehicle or on equipment to perform work can stabilize his or her position by  
gripping with his or her free hand or hands.  
(3 )“Out of order tag” means a tag used to indicate a machine is malfunctioning.  
(4) “Safety instruction sign” means a sign used for general instruction or suggestion  
relative to safety.  
(5) “Sign” means a board, sheet, poster, or placard displayed to convey information  
or direction either temporarily or permanently.  
(6) “Signal” means a specific use of hands or a visual or audible device, such as a  
flashing light or horn, to warn of a possible or existing hazard.  
(7) “Tag” means a piece of material, usually paper, metal, or plastic, attached to a  
piece of equipment or structure for the purpose of identification, instruction, or  
classification.  
(8) “Traffic control devices” means all signs, signals, markings, and devices placed  
or erected for the purpose of regulating, warning, and guiding vehicular traffic and for  
providing employee protection in a work zone.  
(9) “Traffic regulator” means a person who has been trained, properly attired, and  
equipped to regulate traffic flow to provide employee protection in a work zone.  
(10) “Work zone” means a portion of a street or highway that meets any of the  
following:  
(a) Is between a “work zone begins” sign and an “end road work” sign.  
(b) For construction, maintenance, or utility work activities conducted by a work  
crew and more than 1 moving vehicle, is between a “begin work convoy” sign and an  
“end work convoy” sign.  
(c) For construction, maintenance, surveying, or utility work activities conducted by  
a work crew and 1 moving or stationary vehicle exhibiting a rotating beacon or strobe  
light, is between either of the following points:  
(i) A point that is 150 feet behind the rear of the vehicle or that is the point from  
which the beacon or strobe light is first visible on the street or highway behind the  
vehicle, whichever is closer to the vehicle.  
(ii) A point that is 150 feet in front of the front of the vehicle or that is the point  
from which the beacon or strobe light is first visible on the street or highway in front of  
the vehicle, whichever is closer to the vehicle.  
History: 1979 AC; 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
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R 408.42221 Duties of employer.  
Rule 2221. An employer shall provide, install, and maintain signals, signs, barricades,  
and tags, as prescribed by this part, where an employee might be, or would likely be,  
injured if not alerted to the hazard.  
History: 1979 AC; 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.42222 Rescinded.  
History: 1979 AC; 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS.  
R 408.42223 Traffic control.  
Rule 2223. (1) Traffic control devices shall be installed and maintained as  
prescribed in Part 6 of the 2011 MMUTCD, which is adopted by reference in  
R 408.42201.  
(a) At points of hazard, construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic  
control signs and protected by traffic control devices.  
(b) The design and use of all traffic control devices, including signs, signals,  
markings, barricades, and other devices for protection of construction workers shall  
conform to the provisions of Part 6 of the 2011 MMUTCD, which is adopted by  
reference in R 408.42201.  
(2) A hand-held paddle sign shall have 2 faces and it shall be attached to a staff of  
suitable design that will allow the entire unit to be held and controlled by 1 traffic  
regulator. The bottom of the sign shall be a minimum of 6 feet above the roadway  
surface. The sign shall be fastened to the staff so that no part of the legend is obscured.  
The portion of the staff within the sign face shall match the sign colors. The sign shall not  
be less than 18 by 18 inches and the letters shall have a minimum height of 6 inches (150  
millimeters). All letters and spacing between letters shall be as prescribed in Part 6 of the  
2011 MMUTCD, which is adopted by reference in R 408.42201. The legend shall be  
optically centered horizontally on the sign. One side of the sign shall display a "STOP"  
face and the other side shall display the message "SLOW," except that if it is necessary  
for 1 traffic regulator to stop 2 directions of traffic at the same time, then a "STOP" face  
shall be used on each side of the sign. The "STOP" face shall have a red background with  
white letters and border. The "SLOW" face shall have an orange background with black  
letters and border. The shape of the sign shall be octagonal and the portions of the sign  
other than the diamond-shaped "SLOW" face shall be black. When the sign paddle is  
used during hours of darkness, the red and white of the "STOP" face and the orange of  
the "SLOW" face shall be reflectorized. Sheet metal or other light semi-rigid material  
may be used for mounting the "STOP" and "SLOW" faces.  
(3) The paddle sign shall be as follows:  
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Note: “Special” sign dimensions are recommended for single traffic regulator  
operations.  
(4) An employer shall provide, and a traffic regulator shall wear, high-visibility  
safety apparel that meets the Performance Class 2 or 3 requirements of the ANSI/ISEA  
107, “High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear,” 2004 edition, (see Section 1A.11),  
which is adopted by reference in R 408.42201, or equivalent revisions, and labeled as  
meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 2 or 3 risk exposure.  
(5) A traffic regulator shall also wear head, eye, and foot protection as prescribed in  
Construction Safety and Health Standard Part 6. Personal Protective Equipment, as  
referenced in R 408.42201.  
History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2006 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2014 AACS;  
2021 MR 6, Eff. Mar 30, 2021.  
R 408.42224 Barricades for construction operations on other than public right-  
of-way.  
Rule 2224. A barricade shall be provided to obstruct or direct an employee from a  
hazardous area of a construction operation not otherwise affected by another standard.  
History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
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R 408.42225 Placement, removal, relocation, and use of traffic control devices  
from a moving vehicle; handholds.  
Rule 2225. (1) Construction and maintenance operations that require placement,  
relocation, or removal of pavement markings, or traffic control devices such as drums,  
barricades, cones, or signs, shall provide protection to an employee by any of the  
following methods:  
(a) Use of a seat and a seatbelt that shall be worn.  
(b) A standard guardrail system as prescribed in Construction Safety Standard Part  
45 Fall Protection, R 408.44501, as referenced in R 408.42209, which adopts C.F.R.  
§1926.502 et seq. by reference.  
(c) A guardrail as described in subdivision (b) of this subrule may be modified by  
removing a section of the guardrail at the point of operation to facilitate the handling of  
traffic control devices, such as barrels, cones, or pavement markers. A hand hold shall be  
provided. This rule shall apply only to the placement, removal, relocation, and use of  
traffic control devices from a moving vehicle within the work zone.  
(d) When placing or removing traffic control devices from a lower work platform,  
any combination of top rails, mid rails, side rails, seats, toe boards, or other combination  
of equivalent safeguards provided to the employee shall be used. A handhold shall be  
provided.  
(e) Use of a positioning fall protection system that prevents the employee from  
falling from the vehicle. A handhold shall be provided.  
(f) Use of other means that will provide equivalent fall protection for an employee  
may be used. Such a system shall be performance oriented and shall be designed so that it  
does not create a greater hazard to the employee.  
(2) A handhold shall be oriented and a size to promote gripping by wrapping fingers  
around not less than 270 degrees (3 sides) of the device or place designated. The  
handhold shall be capable of withstanding not less than 200 pounds of force in any  
direction and be free from rough edges, slippery surfaces, or hazardous projections. The  
handhold shall be in place and identified as such before employees are permitted to  
perform their assigned tasks while riding on moving vehicles.  
History: 2001 AACS; 2006 AACS; 2013 AACS.  
R 408.42229 Signs generally.  
Rule 2229. (1) If conditions warrant the use of a sign size that is not specified in Tables 2  
to 5, then the ratio of the height of the identifying panel, such as "DANGER" or  
"CAUTION," to the width of the sign shall be maintained as prescribed in the tables.  
(2) Signs shall be removed or covered when the hazard addressed by the sign no longer  
exists.  
History: 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2014 AACS.  
R 408.42230 Letter style and size.  
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Rule 2230. (1) A letter shall be block style and upper case for the top panel and  
upper or upper and lower case for the bottom panel.  
legible.  
Letters and numbers shall be  
(2) Letter size shall be determined by the length of the message and the maximum  
visibility and readability. Table 2 shall be used as a guide for the minimum letter height  
at a safe viewing distance.  
(a) The spacing of letters and words shall not reduce legibility.  
(b) The height of a letter that is more than 5 inches (125 millimeters) high shall be  
increased by an additional 1 inch (25 millimeters) for each 35 feet (10.5 meters) of  
viewing distance.  
(3) Table 2 reads as follows:  
MINIMUM HEIGHT OF LETTERS  
VIEWING DISTANCE  
Inches  
5
Millimeters  
Feet  
Meters  
60.3 - 75  
45.3 - 60  
36.3 - 45  
31.8 - 36  
27.3 - 31.5  
22.8 - 27  
18.3 - 22.5  
12.3 - 18  
9.3 - 12  
125  
113  
100  
88  
75  
63  
50  
38  
25  
19  
13  
6
201 - 250  
151 - 200  
121 - 150  
106 - 120  
91 - 105  
76 - 90  
4 1/2  
4
3 1/2  
3
2 1/2  
2
61 - 75  
1 1/2  
1
41 - 60  
31 - 40  
3/4  
1/2  
1/4  
21 - 30  
6.3 - 9  
10 - 20  
3 -  
3
6
Less than 10  
History: 1995 AACS; 2001 AACS.  
R 408.42231 Accident prevention signs.  
Rule 2231. An accident prevention sign shall be in compliance with all of the  
following provisions:  
(a) Be placed to alert and inform in time to avoid a hazard or to take appropriate  
action.  
(b) Be placed and maintained so as to be legible, without distraction, and so that  
the sign does not create a hazard in itself.  
(c) Be placed so that the sign will not be obscured.  
(d) Be removed or covered when the hazard is removed.  
History: 1979 AC; 1995 AACS.  
R 408.42233 Danger sign.  
Rule 2233. (1) A danger sign to alert employees shall be used  
where an  
immediate hazard exists. The sign shall be removed when the hazard no longer exists.  
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(2) The proportions for a danger sign shall be not less than those prescribed  
in table 3 and the format of figure 1 shall be followed.  
(3) A danger sign shall have the signal word "danger" in white within a red oval  
outlined in white on a black rectangular background in the upper panel.  
The lower panel where additional wording may be used shall be black or red letters  
on a white background as shown in figure 1.  
(4) An employee shall be instructed that a danger sign indicates immediate  
danger and that special precautions are necessary.  
History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS.  
R 408.42234 Caution sign.  
Rule 2234. (1) A caution sign shall be used to warn of a potential hazard or to  
caution against an unsafe practice.  
(2) The proportions for a caution sign shall be not less than those prescribed  
in table 4 and the format of figure 2 shall be followed.  
(3) A caution sign shall have the signal word "caution" in yellow on a black  
background in the upper panel. The lower panel where additional wording may be  
used shall be black letters on a yellow background.  
(4) An employee shall be instructed that a caution sign indicates a possible  
hazard and that proper precautions shall be taken.  
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R 408.42235 Safety instruction sign.  
Rule 2235. (1) A safety instruction sign shall be used  
instruction or suggestion relative to safety measures.  
for  
a general  
(2) The proportions for a safety instruction sign shall be not less than those  
prescribed in table 5 and the format of figure 3 shall be followed.  
(3) A safety instruction sign shall have the signal word in white on a green  
background in the upper panel.  
The lower panel where additional wording  
may be used shall be black letters on a white background.  
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History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS; 2006 AACS.  
R 408.42236 Exit sign.  
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Rule 2236. An exit sign, when required, shall be lettered in legible red le